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Paul Baker supervises 6 postgraduate research students. Some of the students have produced research profiles, these are listed below:

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Professor Paul Baker


Paul Baker

County South

Lancaster University


Lancaster LA1 4YL

United Kingdom

Tel: +44 1524 592442


Research overview

My research interests include corpus linguistics, language and gender/sexual identities and critical discourse analysis. Books include: Corpus Linguistics and Sociolinguistics (2010), Sexed Texts: Language, Gender and Sexuality (2008), Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis (2006), Public Discourses of Gay Men (2005) and Polari: The Lost Language of Gay Men (2002). I am the commissioning editor for the journal Corpora.

PhD supervision

Most of my PhD students are involved in corpus linguistics, (critical) discourse analysis, language and identities or a combination of these. I am most interested in supervising research which highlights or challenges inequalities and/or can be demonstrated as making a positive impact on society.

My current PhD students are working on the following topics:
A corpus study examining how The Guardian reports on the topic of journalism
Discourses of disease and disaster in American newspapers
Construction of Islam in the BBC sitcom Citizen Khan
Metrosexuality in Malaysia
Discourses of infertility in blogs, news and clinic websites
Ideology and argumentation in Salafi Discourse
Representation of dialect in fiction

Recent PhDs I supervised to completion:
A corpus-based examination of the concept of political correctness in British broadsheet newspapers
The language of marriage rituals in Botswana
Combining corpus approaches and CDA to examine discourses of terrorism in the British and Chinese popular press
Combining corpus approaches and CDA to examine discourses of homophobia in a right-wing political organisation
A corpus study to compare lexical bundle use of Chinese learners of English with native speakers of English
A corpus study of keywords to examine gender identity in British and Malaysian children's writing
The construction of gender identity in Iranian bloggers
A corpus-based comparison of two academic books about Wahhabi Islam

Current Teaching

I currently teach various modules in Corpus Linguistics at MA level (on four different schemes), have several PhD students and supervise third year UG dissertations.

Additional Information

The BE06 Corpus

The BE06 Corpus is a one million word corpus of published general written British English. It has the same sampling frame as the LOB and FLOB corpora. This consists of 500 files of 2000 word samples taken from 15 genres of writing.

Eighty-two per cent of the texts were published between 2005 and 2007, while the remainder were published in 2003-4 and early 2008. The median sampling point is 2006, hence the title BE06 (British English 2006). Link to a pdf of the powerpoint slides for a talk I gave at the Lancaster Corpus Research Group on the corpus (June 16th 2008).

Using the corpus

Due to copyright issues, there are no plans to make the corpus files fully available. However, the corpus has been placed on the CQP (Corpus Query Processor) system at Lancaster University and users can carry out concordances, get distribution information (and eventually have access to collocation information). Contact Andrew Hardie in order to obtain a username and password.

Additionally, the following links give frequency lists of the BE06 in various formats (right click on the link and then save it).

BE06 in AntConc format

BE06 Wordlist in WordSmith 5 format

BE06 Wordlist in Wordsmith 4 format

BE06 Wordlist in WordSmith 3 format

The AmE06 Corpus

The AmE06 Corpus is a one million word corpus of published general written American English, also using the same sampling frame as the LOB and FLOB corpora. This consists of 500 files of 2000 word samples taken from 15 genres of writing. The vast majority of the texts were published in 2006. The corpus is also available via CQPweb, and the wordlist is available below.

AmE06 in AntConc format

AmE06 Wordlist in WordSmith 5 format

Current Research



Baker, P. (2014) Using Corpora to Analyse Gender. London: Bloomsbury.

Baker, P. Gabrielatos, C. and McEnery. T. (2013) Discourse Analysis and Media Attitudes: The Representation of Islam in the British Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Baker, P. and Ellece, S. (2011) Key Terms in Discourse Analysis. London: Continuum.

Baker, P. (2010) Sociolinguistics and Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. More information

Baker, P. (ed.) (2009) Contemporary Corpus Linguistics. London: Continuum. More information

Baker, P. (2008) Sexed Texts: Language, Gender and Sexuality. London: Exquinox. More information

Baker, P. (2006) Using Corpora in Discourse Analysis. London: Continuum. More information

Baker, P., Hardie, A. & McEnery, A. (2006) A Glossary of Corpus Linguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Baker, P. (2005) Public Discourses of Gay Men. London: Routledge. More information

Baker, P. & Stanley, J. (2003) Hello Sailor! Seafaring life for gay men: 1945-1990. London: Pearson. More information

Baker, P. (2002) Fantabulosa: A Dictionary of Polari and Gay Slang. London: Continuum. More information

Baker, P. (2002). Polari: The Lost Language of Gay Men. London: Routledge. More information


I am commissioning editor of the journal Corpora published by Edinburgh University Press.

I am on the editorial board for the Journal of English Linguistics, the Journal of Language and Sexuality, Gender and Language, Applied Linguistics, Journalism and Discourse Studies, Text and Talk and Discourse Coherence, Cognition and Creativity.

Journal Articles

Chen, Y-H., and Baker, P. (2015) <a href=http://applij.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2014/12/05/applin.amu065.full">'Investigating criterial discourse features across second language development: lexical bundles in rated learner essays, CEFR B1, B2 and C1.'</a> Applied Linguistics

Baker, P. and Levon, E. (2015) 'Picking the right cherries?: a comparison of corpus-based and qualitative analyses of news articles about masculnity.' Discourse and Communication 9(2): 221-336

Baker, P., Gabrielatos, C. and McEnery T. (2013) ‘Sketching Muslims: A corpus-driven analysis of representations around the word “Muslim” in the British press 1998-2009’ Applied Linguistics 34:3

Baker, P. and Potts, A. (2013) '"Why do white people have thin lips?": Google and the perpetuation of stereotypes via auto-complete search forms." Critical Discourse Studies 10:2 187-204.

Baker, P. (2012) ‘From gay language to normative discourse: a diachronic corpus analysis of
Lavender Linguistics conference abstracts 1994-201.’ Journal of Language and Sexuality 2:2 179-205.

Potts, A. and Baker. P. (2012) 'Does semantic tagging identify cultural change in British and American English?' International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 17:3 295-324.

Baker, P. (2012) 'Acceptable bias?: Using corpus linguistics methods with critical discourse analysis.' Critical Discourse Studies 9:3 247-256.

Gabrielatos, C., McEnery, T., Diggle, P., Baker. P. and ESRC (funder). (2012) 'The peaks and troughs of corpus-based contextual analysis.' International Journal of Corpus Linguistics. 17:2 151-175.

Baker, P. (2011) 'Times may change but we'll always have money: a corpus driven examination of vocabulary change in four diachronic corpora.' Journal of English Linguistics 39: 65-88.

Baker, P. (2010) 'Will Ms ever be as frequent as Mr? A corpus-based comparison of gendered terms across four diachronic corpora of British English.' Gender and Language 4.1: 125-129.

Chen, Y. and Baker, P. (2010) 'Lexical Bundles in L1 and L2 Academic Writing.' Language Learning and Technology. 14: 2 30-49.

Baker, P. (2010) 'Representations of Islam in British broadsheet and tabloid newspapers 1999-2005.' Language and Politics. 9:2 310-338.

Baker, P. (2009) 'The BE06 Corpus of British English and recent language change.' International Journal of Corpus Linguistics. 14:3 312-337.

Baker, P.,Gabrielatos, C., Khosravinik, M., Krzyzanowski, M., McEnery, T and Wodak, R. (2008) 'A useful methodological synergy? Combining critical discourse analysis and corpus linguistics to examine discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK press.' Discourse and Society 19(3): 273-306.

Gabrielatos, C. and Baker, P. (2008) 'Fleeing, sneaking, flooding: a corpus analysis of discursive constructions of refugees and asylum seekers in the UK Press 1996-2005)' Journal of English Linguistics 36:1 pp. 5-38.

Baker, P. and McEnery, A. (2005) 'A corpus-based approach to discourses of refugees and asylum seekers in UN and newspaper texts.' Language and Politics 4:2 pp. 197-226(30).

Baker, P. Hardie, A. McEnery, A., Xiao, R., Bontcheva, K., Cunningham, H., Gaizauskas, R., Hamza, O., Maynard, D., Tablan, V., Ursu, C., Jayaram, B.D., Leisher, M. (2004) 'Corpus linguistics and South Asian languages: Corpus creation and tool development', Literary and Linguistic Computing, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 509-524.

Baker, P. (2004) 'Querying keywords: questions of difference, frequency and sense in keywords analysis.' Journal of English Linguistics. 32: 4 pp 346-359.

Baker, P. (2004) '"Unnatural acts"' Discourses of homosexuality within the House of Lords debates on gay male law reform Sociolinguistics 8:1 88-106.

Baker, P. (2002) 'Construction of Gay Identity via Polari in the Julian and Sandy Radio Sketches,' Lesbian and Gay Review, 3:3: pp 75-84.

Baker, P. (2001) 'Moral Panic and Alternative Identity Construction in Usenet'. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication 7:1.

Baker, P. Lie, M., McEnery, A. and Sebba, M. (2000) 'Building a Corpus of Spoken Sylheti', Literary and Linguistic Computing, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 419-431.

McEnery, A., Wilson, A.and Baker, P.(2000) 'Language teaching: corpus based help for teaching grammar', Journada de Corpus Linguistics, Volume 6, pp 65-77.

McEnery, A. Baker, P. Gaizauskas, R. & Cunningham, H. (2000) 'EMILLE: towards a corpus of South Asian languages', British Computing Society Machine Translation Specialist Group, London, pp 11-1 - 11-9.

McEnery, A. Wilson, A.and Baker, P. (1997) 'Teaching Grammar Again after Twenty Years: Corpus based help for grammar teaching.' New Approaches to Grammar Teaching, RECALL Journal, Volume 9, Number 2, pp 8-17.

Baker, P., McEnery, A.and Wilson, A. (1995) 'A brief report on a statistical analysis of corpus-based versus traditional human-teaching methods of part-of-speech analysis', Language Testing Update, Issue 18, pp 59-62.

McEnery, A., Baker, P. and Wilson, A. (1995) 'A Statistical Analysis of Corpus Based Computer vs Traditional Human Teaching Methods of Part of Speech Analysis', Computer Assisted Language Learning, Volume 8, Number 2-3, pp 259-274.

Baker, P. (1994) 'Lithium Discontinuation - A meta-analysis.' Lithium.

Book Chapters

Baker, P. (2015) 'Two hundred years of the American man.' In T. Milani (ed) Language and Masculinities: performances, intersections, dislocations. London: Routledge.

Baker, P. and McEnery, A. (2014) '"'FIND THE DOCTORS OF DEATH': The UK Press and the Issue of Foreign Doctors Working in the NHS, a Corpus-Based Approach". In A. Jaworski and N. Coupland (eds) The Discourse Reader. London: Routledge.

Baker, P. (2014) '"Bad wigs and screaming mimis": Using corpus-Assisted techniques to carry out critical discourse analysis of the representation of trans people in the British press.' In C. Hart and P. Cap (eds) Contemporary Critical Discourse Studies. London, Bloomsbury: 211-236

Baker P. ‘Discourse and Gender’. (2013) In K. Hyland and B. Paltridge (eds) Continuum Companion to Discourse Analysis. London: Continuum.

Baker, P. (2013) ‘Corpus Linguistics and Sociolinguistics’. J . Holmes (ed). Research Methods in Sociolinguistics. A Practical Guide. Wiley Blackwell.

Baker, P. (2012) 'Corpora and Gender studies' In K. Hyland, C. M. Huat and M. Handford (eds) Corpus Applications in Applied Linguistics. London: Continuum, pp. 100-116.

Baker, P. (2012) ‘Diachronic lexical change in American English (1961-2006).’ In J. Zhang (ed). A Morphologically-based Study of the Lexical Collocation Heterogeneity in EST Texts. Shanghai Jiaotong University.

Baker, P. (2011) 'Social involvement in Corpus Studies.' In V. Viana, S. Zyngier, and G. Barnbrook (eds) Perspectives on Corpus Linguisitcs. Amsterdam: John Benjamins pp.  17-28.

Baker, P. (2010) 'Corpus Linguistics'. L. Litosseleti (ed) Research Methods in Linguistics. London: Continuum, pp. 93-113.

Baker, P. (2009) 'Issues in teaching corpus-based discourse analysis' In L. Lombardo (ed). Using Corpora to Learn about Language and Discourse. Peter Lang, pp. 73-98.

Baker, P. (2009) 'Introduction' In P. Baker (ed) Contemporary Approaches to Corpus Linguistics. London: Continnum, pp. 1-8.

Baker, P. (2009) 'Language and Sexuality'. In J. Culpeper, F. Katamba, P. Kerswill, R. Wodak and T. McEnery (eds) English Language and Linguistics. London: Palgrave, pp. 550-563.

Baker, P. (2008) 'Eligible' bachelors and 'frustrated' spinsters: corpus linguistics, gender and language. In J. Sunderland, K. Harrington and H. Stantson (eds) Gender and Language Research Methodologies. London: Palgrave.

McEnery, T. and Baker, P. (2003) 'Corpora, translation and multilingual computing' in F. Zannetin (ed.) Corpora in Translator Education, St. Jerome Press, Manchester.

Baker, P. (2002) 'No Fats, Femmes or Flamers: Changing Constructions of Identity and the Object of Desire in Gay Men's Magazines.' B. Benwell (ed.) Masculinity and Men's Lifestyle Magazines. Sociological Review.

McEnery, A., Baker, P. and Cheepen, C. (2001) 'Lexis, Indirectness and Politeness in Operator Calls.' In C. Meyer & P. Leistyna. (eds.) Corpus Analysis: Language Structure and Language Use. Rodopi: Amsterdam.

Singh, S., McEnery, A. and Baker, P.(2000) 'Building a Parallel Corpus of English/Punjabi', in J. Veronis (ed) Parallel Text Processing. Kluwer: Dordrecht, pp 335-347.

McEnery, A.M., Baker, P. andHardie, A. (2000) 'Swearing and Abuse in Modern British English', in B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk and P.J. Melia (eds.) Practical Applications of Language Corpora, Peter Lang: Hamburg, pp 37-48.

McEnery, A. and Baker, P. (2000) 'Minority Language Engineering', in B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk and P.J. Melia (eds.) Practical Applications of Language Corpora, Peter Lang: Hamburg, pp 411-428.

McEnery, A.M., Baker, P. andHardie, A. (2000) 'Assessing Claims about Language Use with Corpus Data - Swearing and Abuse', in J. Kirk (ed) Corpora Galore, Rodopi: Amsterdam, pp 45-55.

Baker, P. (1997) 'Consistency and Accuracy in Correcting Automatically Tagged Data.' In Corpus Annotation. R. Garside, G. Leech & A. McEnery (eds.) Longman Addison-Wesley, pp 243-250.

McEnery, A.M., Baker, P.& Hutchinson, J.E. (1997) 'A Corpus Based Grammar Tutor'. In R.G. Garside, G.N. Leech & A.M. McEnery (eds.) Corpus Annotation, Longman Addison-Wesley, pp 209-219.

Conference Proceedings

Xiao, Z, McEnery, A, Baker, P and Hardie, A (2004) 'Developing Asian language corpora: standards and practice'. In: Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Asian Language Resources, Sanya, China.

Baker, P, Hardie, A, McEnery, T and Jayaram, BD (2003) 'Constructing corpora of South Asian languages'. In: Archer, D, Rayson, P, Wilson, A, and McEnery, T (eds.) (2003) Proceedings of the Corpus Linguistics 2003 conference. UCREL Technical Papers Volume 16. Department of Linguistics, Lancaster University.

Baker, P, Hardie, A, McEnery, AM and Jayaram, BD (2003) 'Corpus data for South Asian language processing'. In: Proceedings of the EACL Workshop on South Asian Languages, Budapest.

Tablan, V., Ursu, C., Bontcheva, K., Cunningham, H., Maynard, D., Hamza, O., McEnery, T., Baker, P. & Leisher, M. (2002) 'A Unicode-based Environment for Creation and Use of Language Resources,' in LREC 2002 Proceedings, pp 66-71.

Baker, P, Hardie, A, McEnery, A, Cunningham, H and Gaizauskas, R (2002) 'EMILLE, a 67-million word corpus of Indic languages: data collection, markup and harmonisation'. In: Proceedings of LREC 2002.

Baker, P, Hardie, A, McEnery, A and Siewierska, A (eds.) (2000) Proceedings of the Third Discourse Anaphora and Reference Resolution Colloquium (2000). UCREL Technical Papers Volume 12 Special Issue. Department of Linguistics, Lancaster University.

McEnery, T., Baker, P., and Burnard, L. (2000) 'Corpus Resources and Minority Language Engineering', in M. Gavrilidou, G. Carayannis, S. Markantontou, S. Piperidis and G. Stainhauoer (eds) Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, Athens, Greece, pp. 801-806.

McEnery, A. and Baker. P. (1998) 'Intergrating the Intranet into the teaching of linguistics.' (1998). The Future of the Humanities in the Digital Age. International Conference Bergen, Norway. 138-140.

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