Paul Chilton supervises 5 postgraduate research students. Some of the students have produced research profiles, these are listed below:
(1977) The Poetry of Jean de La Cepp�de: A Study in Text and Context, Clarendon Press, Oxford.
(1988) Orwellian Language and the Media, Pluto Press, London.
(1996) Security Metaphors: Cold War Discourse from Containment to Common European Home, Peter Lang, Berne and New York.
(2004) Analysing Political Discourse: Theory and Practice, London, Routledge
(2011) Language Structure and Geometry, Cambridge University Press
(2013) Language and Critique:Rethinking Critical Discourse Analysis, Cambridge University Press
(1983) Nineteen eighty-four in 1984: Autonomy, Control and Communication, co-edited with C. Aubrey, Comedia Publishing Group, London (Introduction, pp. 1-6; essay, pp. 33-44)
(1985) Language and the Nuclear Arms Debate, Pinter, London, 244pp. (Introduction, pp. xiii-xxiii; chapter listed below, pp. 103-27)
(1993) Discourse and Political Change in Europe, guest editor with Mikhail V. Ilyin, Discourse and Society, 4 (1), special issue, Sage, London (Foreword, pp. 4-6; article listed below, pp. 7-31)
(1998) Political Discourse in Transition in Europe 1989-91, co-edited with Mikhail V. Ilyin and Jacob L. Mey, John Benjamins, Amsterdam/Philadelphia (includes chapter, pp. 15-24, listed below)
(2002) Politics as Text and Talk: Analytic Approaches to Political Discourse, co-edited with Christina Schäffner, John Benjamins, Amsterdam
(2005) A New Research Agenda in Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity, ed. R. Wodak and P. Chilton, John Benjamins
(2010) Language, Cognition and Space: the State of the Art and New Directions, co-edited with Vyv Evans, Equinox
ARTICLES AND CHAPTERS
Linguistics, language and discourse
(1979) 'On the Theory of Register', Nottingham Linguistics Circular, 7 (.2), pp. 113-30
(1979) 'The Sounds and Sound-Changes of Pseudolanguage: a Case Study', Anthropological Linguistics, 21 (3), pp. 124-46
(1982) 'Nukespeak: Nuclear Language, Culture and Propaganda' in C. Aubrey (ed.), Nukespeak: The Media and the Bomb, Comedia Publishing Group, London, pp. 94-112
(1983) 'Newspeak' in C. Aubrey and P. Chilton (eds.), Nineteen eighty-four in 1984: Autonomy, Control and Communication, Comedia Publishing Group, London, pp. 33-44
(1983) 'Orwell's Conception of Language' in B. Suykerbuyk (ed.), Essays from Oceania and Eurasia, Progressef, Antwerp, pp. 99-110
(1984) 'Orwell et Saussure: une confrontation', La Quinzaine litt�raire, no. 411
(1984) 'Orwell, Language and Linguistics', Language and Communication, 4 (2), pp. 129-46
(1985) 'Words, Discourse and Metaphors: the Meanings of deter, deterrent, and deterrence', in Language and the Nuclear Arms Debate, ed. P.A. Chilton, Pinter, London, pp. 103- 27
(1987) 'Co-operation and Non-co-operation: Ethical and Political Aspects of Pragmatics', Language and Communication, 7 (3), pp. 221-29
(1987) 'Metaphor, Euphemism and the Militarization of Language', Current Research on Peace and Violence, 10 (1), pp. 7-19
(1988) 'Metaphors and Models of International Relations', Englisch-Amerikanische Studien, 3, 4/88, pp. 395-406
(1989) with George Lakoff, 'Foreign Policy by Metaphor', Center for Research in Language Newsletter, 3, pp. 5-19, University of California, Berkeley
(1990) 'Politeness, Politics and Diplomacy', Discourse and Society, 1 (2), pp. 201-24
(1990) 'Po tu storonu bezopastnosti: metafora u predelov politicheskoj mysli' [Russian translation of unpublished English original] in Rabochij klass i sovremennij mir, 5 (119), pp. 66-75
(1991) 'M�taphore et l�gitimation de la guerre du Golfe', Alternatives non-violentes, 79 (juin 1991), pp. 54-60; English version, 'Getting the Message Through: Metaphor and Legitimation in the Gulf War' in Ruth Reiher (ed.), Sprache im Konflikt, Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, 1994
(1993) with M. V. Ilyin, 'Metaphor in Political Discourse: the Case of the "Common European House" ', Discourse and Society, 4 (1), pp. 7-31
(1994) 'Language and Politics' in Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Pergamon Press/Aberdeen University Press
(1994) 'Newspeak', ibid.
(1994) 'Nukespeak', ibid.
(1994) 'Antilanguage', ibid.
(1994) ' "La plaie qu'il convient de fermer..." Les m�taphores du discours raciste', Journal of Pragmatics, 21 (6), pp. 583-619
(1994) 'Sch�mas cognitifs du discours raciste fran�ais' in J. Berting and C. Vilain-Gandossi (eds.), The Role of Stereotypes in International Relations, Rotterdam Institute for Social Policy Research (Studies in Socio-cultural Transformation, no. 4), Rotterdam
(1995) with G. Lakoff, 'Metaphor in Foreign Policy Discourse' in C. Schäffner and
A. Wenden (eds.), Language and Peace, Dartmouth, Aldershot
(1996) 'The Meaning of Security' in F. A. Beer and R. Hariman (eds.), Post-Realism: The Rhetorical Turn in International Relations, Michigan State University Press, East Lansing, pp. 193-216
(1997) 'Discourse and Politics', co-authored with Chrstina Schaeffner, in Teun A. van Dijk (ed.), Discourse as Social Interaction. Discourse Studies: A Multidisciplinary Introduction, volume 2, pp. 6-23
(1998) 'Making Sense of the Cold War's Collapse' in P. A. Chilton, M. V. Ilyin and J. L. Mey (eds.), Political Discourse in Transition in Europe 1989-1991, Amsterdam, John Benjamins, pp. 15-24
(1998) 'The Role of Language in Human Conflict: Prolegomena to the Investigation of Language as a Factor in Conflict Causation and Resolution' in S. Wright (ed.), Language and Conflict: A Neglected Relationship, Clevedon, Multilingual Matters, pp. 2-17
(1999) 'Grenzsemanitik' in S. Kirkbright (ed.), Nachdenken �ber Grenzen, Munich, Judicium, pp. 15-38
(2000) 'Participant Roles and the Analysis of Leadership Discourse: British and American Leaders Explain the Kosovo Crisis' in K. P. Schneider (ed.), Language Use, Language Acquisition and Language History: (Mostly) Empirical Studies in Honour of R�diger Zimmermann, Wissenschaftlicher Veralag Trier, Trier
(2001) 'Analysing the Language of Politics: Xenophobic and Racist Discourse' in O. Panagl, H. Goebl and E. Brix, Der Mensch und seine Sprache(n), B�hlau, Vienna, pp. 157-90
(2002) 'Language, Communication and Discourse' in Taipale et al., War or Health? A Reader, University Press, Dhaka, etc.: 366-378
(2002) 'La d�fense europ�enne, condition n�cessaire � la formation d'une identit�
europ�enne?', La revue internationale et strat�gique, 48 (hiver), pp.109-118
(2002) 'Manipulation' in Jef Verschueren, Jan-Ola �stman, Jan Blommaert and Chris Bulcaen (eds.), Handbook of Pragmatics, Amsterdam/Philadelphia, John Benjamins
(2002) 'Do something! Conceptualising responses to the attacks of 11 September 2001', Journal of Language and Politics, 1 (1):
(2002) P. Chilton and C. Schäffner, 'Introduction: Themes and principles in the analysis of political discourse' in P. Chilton and C. Schäffner (eds.), Politics as Text and Talk: Analytic Approaches to Political Discourse, John Benjamins, Amsterdam
(2003) 'Deixis and Distance: President Clinton's Justification of Intervention in Kosovo' in At War with Words, ed. Mirjana, N. Dedaic and Daniel N. Nelson, Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter
(2004) 'Metarepresentation, discourse and discourse spaces' in Marques, M. Aldina (ed.), Pr�ticas de investiga��o em An�lise Lingu�stica do Discurso - Actas do II Encontro Internacional de An�lise Lingu�stica do Discurso, Cehum, Braga
(2005) 'Missing Links in Mainstream CDA: Modules, Blends and the Critical Instinct ' in A New Research Agenda in Critical Discourse Analysis: Theory and Interdisciplinarity, ed. R. Wodak and P. Chilton, John Benjamins
(2005) 'Manipulation, Memes and Metaphors: The Case of Mein Kampf' in L. de Saussure (ed.), Manipulation, Amsterdam, John Benjamins
(2005) 'Discourse Space Theory: Geometry, Brain and Shifting Viewpoints, Annual Review of Cognitive Linguistics, vol. 3, pp. 78-116
(2006) 'Political Terminology', Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd Ed. , Edited by Keith Brown, Elsevier: Oxford
(2006) Rundblad, G., Chilton P.A., Hunter, P. R., 'An Enquiry into Scientific and Media Discourse in the MMR Controversy: Authority and Factuality', Communication and Medicine 3.1: 69-80.
(2006) 'Negation as Maximal Distance in Discourse Space Theory', Groupe de Recherches Anglo-Am�ricaines de Tours
(2007) 'Geometrical Concepts at the Interface of Formal and Cognitive Models: Aktionsart and Aspect in English', Pragmatics and Cognition, 15 (1): 91-114
(2008) 'Reflections on Blends and Discourse' in T. Oakeley and A. Hougaard (eds.), Mental Spacesin Discourse and Interaction, Amsterdam, John Benjamins
(2008) 'Political Terminology in R. Wodak and V. Koller (eds.), Handbook of Communication in the Public sphere, Handbook of Linguistics, volume 4, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin
(2009) 'Metaphor in Mental Representations of Space, Time and Society: The CognitiveLinguistic Approach' in Hanna Pishwa (ed.), Language and Social Cognition:Expression of the Social Mind, Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter
(2009) 'Get and the grasp schema: a new approach to conceptual modelling in imageschema semantics', New Directions in Cognitive Linguistics, ed. S. Pourcel, Benjamins, Amsterdam
(2009) 'Critical Discourse Analysis', The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the Language Sciences, Cambridge University Press
(2009) 'Reading Sonnet 30: Discourse, Metaphor and Blending" in A. Musolff and J. Zinken (eds.), Palgrave Macmillan
(2010) 'From Mind to Grammar: Coordinate Systems, Prepositions, Constructions', chapter in P. A. Chilton and V. Evans (eds.), Language, Cognition and Space: the State of the Art and New Directions
(2009) 'Text Linguistics' in J. Culpeper, F. Katamba, P. Kerswill and R. Wodak (eds.), English Language and Linguistics, Palgrave Macmillan
(2009) 'What is Critical Discourse Analysis and what can we mean by "critical" in a cross-
cultural context?, The Journal of Chinese Sociolinguistics, 2 (13): 10-24
(1980) 'Les sonnets religieux de Fran�ois Maynard: des r�flexions stylistiques et s�mantiques', Cahiers Maynard, no.10, pp. 14-38
(1983) 'Autonomy and Paradox in Literary Theory', Journal of Literary Semantics, vol.12, no.1, pp. 73-91
(1985) 'The �paves of the Heptam�ron: Some Quantitative and Qualitative Clues to their Attribution', Studi Francesi, pp. 449-67
(1987) 'Jean de La Cepp�de: Les Th�or�mes' in D. Rubin (ed.), Po�sies du premier 17e si�cle, Textes et Contextes, Narr Verlag and J. Place, T�bingen and Paris, pp. 65-97
(1987) 'Jean Auvray: choix de textes', ibid., pp. 111-19
(1989) 'Humanism and War in the Work of Rabelais and Montaigne' in J. R. Mulryne and M. Shewring (eds.), War, Literature and the Arts in Sixteenth-Century Europe, Warwick Studies in the European Humanities, Macmillan, London, pp. 119-43
(1989) 'Devout Humanism' in Harvard History of French Literature, ed. D. Hollier, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 253-8
(1997) 'La Bo�tie' in Protest, Power and Change. An Encyclopedia of Nonviolent Action from ACT-UP to Women's Suffrage, ed. W. Vogele, Garland Publishing Inc., New York and London, p.299
(1997) 'Voluntary Servitude', ibid., pp. 556-557
(1971) translation of Jean Piaget, Mental Imagery in the Child, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London, 396pp.
(1984) translation and introduction, Marguerite de Navarre, The Heptameron, Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, 543 pp., of which pp. 7-44 are a critical introduction
I am available as a visiting professor to give lectures and teach postgraduate courses.
I am also available as a professional consultant to organisations in the public domainon any aspect of public communication, including conceptual framing, rhetorical effectiveness and presentation.
INVITED LECTURES AND SEMINARS
RECENT LECTURES AND SEMINARS
2009 January, Bonn University, invited lecture: "Obama's Inaugural: Space, time and the Possible"
2009 January, King's College, London, research seminar: "Image Schema Semantics"
2009 March, Bogota, Colombia, plenary lecture, Dialogue Under Occupation conference III, "Legitimisation in political discourse
2009 April, University of Neuch�tel, two talks, one on cognitive semantics and the English verb get, and one on Habermas, legitimation and CDA
2009 May, China: the third conference of the Leverhulme-funded collaborative project New Discourses in Contemporary China, Nankai University, Tianjin. Plenary Lecture: What do we mean by "critical"?
Talks in Beijing, Guangzhou, Hong Kong and other universities on (i) Cognitive Linguistics (ii) Discourse Analysis
2009 June, Plenary: "Critical Perspectives", Critique: An interdisciplinary day conference, Department of Social Sciences, Loughborough University
2009 September, Plenary, Lodz, Poland, 2nd International Conference on Political Linguistics
2010 April: Invited lectures in China: Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Zhejiang University: Hangzhou, Huazhong University of Science and Technology (Wuhan), Wuhan University, China University of Geosciences (Wuhan), Round Table on discourse studies: Tianjin University of Commerce, Beijing Foreign Studies University
May: Invited lecture, University of Granada, MA course: Complutense University, Madrid
June: PhD course, University of Lugano, Switzerland
WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature): consultant on cognitive framing for joint NGO report 'Common Cause: The Case for Working with our Cultural Values'.
OXFAM: consultation on cognitive framing for campaign planning meeting.
ResPublica: consultancy on cognitive framing related to environmental and development concernAD Research and Analysis Limited: 'Finding Positive Frames for UK Development'
AD Research and Analysis Limited: cognitive framing consultant for report 'Finding Positive Frames for UK Development'.
Co-Editor with Ruth Wodak of the Journal of Language and Politics
This active and growing scholarly network was launched in 2007 with the aid of a Leverhulme grant for academic collaboration. It began with a collaboration between Lancaster University, Nankai University and Tianjin University of Commerce. Thanks to the support of the two Chinese universities in particular, the network is exapanding and will hold its fourth international conference in Guangzhou in 2011.
For details see: http://www.lancs.ac.uk/fass/projects/ndcc/index.php
Linguistics is the scientific study of the uniquely human language ability. Cognitive Linguistics is an approach to human language that takes account of the connections between human language and other kinds of human cognition, such as spatial cognition, vision and memory. Cognitive linguists investigate the structure of language (words, constructions, etc.) viewed as the means humans have developed to communicate many different kinds of meaning.
What's my current research?
In the past few years I've developed a theoretical model called Deictic Space Theory (DST). 'Deictic' is the term linguists use for certain core expressions whose meaning depends on the position and time of speaking - in short, on a speaker's 'point of view', in all senses of the term. I have almost completed a book explaining this theory. The central idea is that a certain range of linguistic expressions can be described in terms of abstract but simple geometrical relationships.
Geometry? Well, it works roughly as follows. I postulate three "dimensions" of abstract linguistic meaning - dimensions that I take to be fundamental. These dimensions are: (i) time, (ii) modality and (iii) foreground/background perspective. Each of these three involves point of view, mental distancing and thus direction (away from the speaker). These ideas presuppose spatial concepts, used metaphorically to refer to abstract notions. It makes sense to explore spatial concepts, whether metaphorical or not, in terms of geometrical ones.
Odd as it may seem, this geometrical approach unifies many insights regarding the meanings of grammatical constructions - e.g. those expressing beliefs, perceptions, reports, possible worlds, imaginary worlds, counterfactual worlds, and the like. Since all such cases depend on the assumption of a situated speaker with a mind, it demonstrates the central importance of point of view in the mental constructs that we use language to communicate.
The key ideas of this approach are in peer-reviewed publications (see Publications section for full details):
(2005) 'Discourse Space Theory: Geometry, Brain and Shifting Viewpoints'
(2006) 'Negation as Maximal Distance in Discourse Space Theory'
(2007) 'Geometrical Concepts at the Interface of Formal and Cognitive Models: Aktionsart and Aspect in English'
(2009) 'Get and the grasp schema: a new approach to conceptual modeling in image schema semantics'
(2009) 'From Mind to Grammar: Coordinate Systems, Prepositions, Constructions'
(2010) 'From Mind to Grammar: Coordinate Systems, Prepositions, Constructions'
I will present a unified account of this theoretical approach in a forthcoming book:
(2011) Language Structure and Geometry, Cambridge University Press
What else in the cognitive linguistics framework?
I've investigated metaphorical expressions in texts of very different types and historical contexts. In The Poetry of Jean de La Cepp�de: A Study in Text and Context (chapters 5 and 6, 1977), I described networks of metaphor in religious poetry of seventeenth century, using a systematic (but not fully cognitive) framework. In Security Metaphors (1996) I explored the structure of the metaphors used in Western discourse of nuclear deterrence and Cold War, using conceptual Metaphor Theory. I have explored the phenomenon of metaphor, particularly in international relations, in a number of journal publications (see Publications section).
In these ways my work in cognitive linguistics has an interdisciplinary relationship with Critical Discourse Analysis - see below. I have also recently applied Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Blending Theory to literary text (Chilton 2009; cf. also Chilton 2008). Still more recently I have started to develop an approach to visual image analysis that draws on metaphor, blending and the two-pathway neural model of visual processing.
Critical Discourse Analysis
A loosely networked group of scholars, originating in the 1980s mainly in the UK and western Europe, seeking to do social critique by detailed examination of text and talk. The methods of linguistic description are diverse and largely informal. Generally referred to as CDA.
What's my take on it?
This will be laid out in a forthcoming book: Language and Critique: Rethinking Critical Discourse Analysis, Cambridge University Press.
This book will take up some of the points raised in my (2005) paper 'Missing Links in Mainstream CDA', where I raised some challenges for CDA. The CDA enterprise (I am willy-nilly a part of it, though I've never been keen on the label) is now at an important juncture. First, CDA's use of linguistics needs to be reconsidered. Second, CDA has been Euro-centric but now has to work in a global scholarly environment. Third, this new environment raises the biggest challenge of all - what is meant by 'critical'? This question is unavoidable now because 'CDA' is adopted in many regions, nations and under many different types of political and social regime. Is CDA a western import? Is critique based on relative or absolute values? On what values is critique based? The book will introduce philosophical issues that CDA has not before engaged with, drawing on discourse ethics, on new ideas in critical social theory, and on moral philosophy.
What have I written?
Numerous scholarly publications and some journalistic ones, arising from historical currents and crises of the time: the division of Europe, nuclear weapons, racism. My 2004 book, Analysing Political Discourse, was not in the mainstream CDA mode. It did not reject Chomsky's universalism. It was perhaps Aristotelian: humans are political animals and connectedly they are talking animals. It used techniques of analysis taken from different kinds of linguistic theory and developed new approaches, resembling the DST model in structure. It did address many of the familiar topics of CDA, including elite and grass-roots racism.
What about CDA and Cognitive Linguistics?
My 1996 book, Security Metaphors, is a detailed account of the conceptual framing of the doctrine of deterrence during the Cold War period, ending with an account of the fracturing of the discourse around the crucial year 1989. The use of conceptual metaphor theory in this book is in line with a whole range of work now carried out by cognitively inclined 'critical' analysts of discourse, particularly among a new generation of scholars.
Among many papers I've written that use metaphor theory, as well as other technical ideas from Cognitive Linguistics are the following:
(1985) 'Words, Discourse and Metaphors: the Meanings of deter, deterrent, and deterrence'.
(1987) 'Metaphor, Euphemism and the Militarization of Language'
(1988) 'Metaphors and Models of International Relations'
(1989) with George Lakoff, 'Foreign Policy by Metaphor'
1990) 'Po tu storonu bezopastnosti: metafora u predelov politicheskoj mysli'
(1991) 'M�taphore et l�gitimation de la guerre du Golfe'
(1993) with M. V. Ilyin, 'Metaphor in Political Discourse: the Case of the "Common European House" '
(1994) ' "La plaie qu'il convient de fermer..." Les m�taphores du discours raciste'
(1994) 'Sch�mas cognitifs du discours raciste fran�ais'
(1996) 'The Meaning of Security'
(2005) 'Manipulation, Memes and Metaphors: The Case of Mein Kampf''
(2009) 'Metaphor in Mental Representations of Space, Time and Society: The Cognitive Linguistic Approach'
Cognitive linguistics, particularly the idea of cognitive frames (including so-called 'deep frames'), has entered the public sphere and I have acted as consultant in regard to the communication strategies of major non-governmental organisations
Language, discourse and religion
This thread, which is continuous with much of my textual and 'critical' work, began with research into texts of the European Renaissance, in particular French ones.
It was oriented to text in its historical social and political context, and initially focussed on the work of a provincial Catholic poet, Jean de La Cepp�de, who published a collection of sonnets on the Crucifixion and Resurrection in 1613 and 1622. What my analysis showed was layers of intertextuality, metaphorical expressions, narrative patterns, and argumentation structures, all of which could be linked with their historical conjuncture. The textual meanings, however, have an authentically religious character and are not reducible to effects of e.g. ideology and power.
Subsequent work of mine focused on the writing of Marguerite de Navarre -- a writer of mystical verse, diplomat, Catholic reformer, early feminist, sister of Francis I, and author of a set of scandalous stories, known as The Heptameron. My 1984 translation of this work, and critical introduction to it, was based on quantitative stylistic analysis of the available manuscripts (see Chilton 1985). Analysis of content of The Heptameron revealed a surprising intertwining of discourses relating to theology, sex, marriage, sexual abuse by priests, the status of women, and male domination. A short later paper (Chilton 1989) concerned St Francis of Sales, the language of devotional manuals and the social and religious roles of women in seventeenth-century France.
Despite my association with Critical Discourse Analysis, it should not be thought that in studying religious discourse my purpose has been to deconstruct, debunk or demystify it: this has never been and is not my purpose.
It was becoming clear to me in the last chapter of Analysing Political Discourse, that CDA could not ignore religion. Following leads in Habermas, who considers dialogue between religious discourse and secular discourse to be essential, I am investigating several aspects of the relationship between human language and religion for a possible monograph. The political exploitation of religious discourse will certainly be addressed but I will focus on the nature of religious meanings expressed linguistically, without conforming to the view that such meanings are deludedor ideological.
Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/Proceedings › Chapter (peer-reviewed)
Research output: Book/Report/Proceedings › Book
Research output: Book/Report/Proceedings › Book