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All-integrated terahertz modulators

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>1/01/2018
<mark>Journal</mark>Nanophotonics
Issue number1
Volume7
Number of pages18
Pages (from-to)127-144
<mark>State</mark>Published
Early online date7/10/17
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Terahertz (0.1-10 THz corresponding to vacuum wavelengths between 30 μm and 3 mm) research has experienced impressive progress in the last few decades. The importance of this frequency range stems from unique applications in several fields, including spectroscopy, communications, and imaging. THz emitters have experienced great development recently with the advent of the quantum cascade laser, the improvement in the frequency range covered by electronic-based sources, and the increased performance and versatility of time domain spectroscopic systems based on full-spectrum lasers. However, the lack of suitable active optoelectronic devices has hindered the ability of THz technologies to fulfill their potential. The high demand for fast, efficient integrated optical components, such as amplitude, frequency, and polarization modulators, is driving one of the most challenging research areas in photonics. This is partly due to the inherent difficulties in using conventional integrated modulation techniques. This article aims to provide an overview of the different approaches and techniques recently employed in order to overcome this bottleneck.