We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK


93% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating

Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Assessment of spiking procedures for the introd...
View graph of relations

« Back

Assessment of spiking procedures for the introduction of a phenanthrene-LNAPL mixture into field-wet soil.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Journal publication date12/2003
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Number of pages8
Original languageEnglish


Laboratory based studies on the fate of organic contaminants in soil typically requires the test compound(s) to be spiked into the test medium. Consequently, such studies are inherently dependant on the homogeneity of the contaminant within the spiked soil. Three blending methods were compared for the addition of a phenanthrene-transformcr oil mixture into field-wet soil. Spiking homogeneity, reproducibility and artefacts were assessed based on dichloromethane and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin chemical extractability, and bacterial mineralization. Spiking using a stainless-steel spoon, consistently produced good spike homogeneity Lis determined by sample oxidation, chemical extraction and mineralization, and was consistently more reliable than either the Waring blender or modified bench drill. Overall, neither transformer oil-concentration nor blending method influenced chemical extractability or mineralization of the PAH following 1 day equilibration. In general, spiking procedures require validation prior to use, as homogeneity cannot be assured. (C) 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.