A mutant of the NAD-malic enzyme-type C4 plant, Amaranthus edulis, which lacks phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in the mesophyll cells was studied. Analysis of CO2 response curves of photosynthesis of the mutant, which has normal Kranz anatomy but lacks a functional C4 cycle, provided a direct means of determining the liquid phase-diffusive resistance of atmospheric CO2 to sites of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation inside bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts (rbs) within intact plants. Comparisons were made with excised shoots of wild-type plants fed 3,3-dichloro-2-(dihydroxyphosphinoyl-methyl)-propenoate, an inhibitor of PEPC. Values of rbs in A. edulis were 70 to 180 m2 s1 mol1, increasing as the leaf matured. This is about 70-fold higher than the liquid phase resistance for diffusion of CO2 to Rubisco in mesophyll cells of C3 plants. The values of rbs in A. edulis are sufficient for C4 photosynthesis to elevate CO2 in BS cells and to minimize photorespiration. The calculated CO2 concentration in BS cells, which is dependent on input of rbs, was about 2,000 µbar under maximum rates of CO2 fixation, which is about six times the ambient level of CO2. High re-assimilation of photorespired CO2 was demonstrated in both mutant and wild-type plants at limiting CO2 concentrations, which can be explained by high rbs. Increasing O2 from near zero up to ambient levels under low CO2, resulted in an increase in the gross rate of O2 evolution measured by chlorophyll fluorescence analysis in the PEPC mutant; this increase was simulated from a Rubisco kinetic model, which indicates effective refixation of photorespired CO2 in BS cells.