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Comparison of diclofenac with apigenin-glycosides rich Clinacanthus nutans extract for amending inflammation and catabolic protease regulations in osteoporotic-osteoarthritis rat model

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

E-pub ahead of print
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>9/05/2020
<mark>Journal</mark>DARU, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Number of pages11
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print
Early online date9/05/20
Original languageEnglish


Osteoporotic-osteoarthritis is an incapacitating musculoskeletal illness of the aged.

The anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic actions of Diclofenac were compared with apigenin-C-glycosides rich Clinacanthus nutans (CN) leaf extract in osteoporotic-osteoarthritis rats.

Female Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into five groups (n = 6). Four groups were bilateral ovariectomised for osteoporosis development, and osteoarthritis were induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) into the right knee joints. The Sham group was sham-operated, received saline injection and deionized drinking water. The treatment groups were orally given 200 or 400 mg extract/kg body weight or 5 mg diclofenac /kg body weight daily for 28 days. Articular cartilage and bone changes were monitored by gross and histological structures, micro-CT analysis, serum protein biomarkers, and mRNA expressions for inflammation and catabolic protease genes.

HPLC analysis confirmed that apigenin-C-glycosides (shaftoside, vitexin, and isovitexin) were the major compounds in the extract. The extract significantly and dose-dependently reduced cartilage erosion, bone loss, cartilage catabolic changes, serum osteoporotic-osteoarthritis biomarkers (procollagen-type-II-N-terminal-propeptide PIINP; procollagen-type-I-N-terminal-propeptide PINP; osteocalcin), inflammation (IL-1β) and mRNA expressions for nuclear-factor-kappa-beta NF-κβ, interleukin-1-beta IL-1β, cyclooxygenase-2; and matrix-metalloproteinase-13 MMP13 activities, in osteoporotic-osteoarthritis rats comparable to Diclofenac.

This study demonstrates that apigenin-C-glycosides at 400 mg CN extract/kg (about 0.2 mg apigenin-equivalent/kg) is comparable to diclofenac in suppressing inflammation and catabolic proteases for osteoporotic-osteoarthritis prevention.