The aim of the drawing Caves II and the practice from which it arises is, through archival and field work, to research and reconnect contemporary drawing with significant and overlooked historical practices. The Caves series arose through research in the Turner archive on how artists use sketch books. I examined a group of unusual sketches in the Yorkshire 4 notebook of caves, including Yordas Cave. I returned to the exact location to try to understand why Turner's language in these drawings was so erratic. After many drawing visits it was clear that the collision of darkness, discomfort, and fear with his practice of measured accurate topographic drawing combined to make a powerfully expressive shorthand notation.