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Early-Mid Miocene palaeodrainage and tectonics in the Pakistan Himalaya.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published

Journal publication date1/10/2003
JournalGeological Society of America Bulletin
Journal number10
Volume115
Number of pages13
Pages1265-1277
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

The 18–14 Ma Kamlial Formation Himalayan foreland basin sedimentary rocks in the Chinji Village region, Potwar Plateau, Pakistan, are characterized by: (1) lithofacies indicative of deposition by a large river; (2) a dominant magmatic arc provenance completely unlike the ‘recycled orogen’ foreland basin deposits stratigraphically below, above, or coeval with these rocks; and (3) subordinate contribution from a rapidly exhuming source, interpreted as either the Nanga Parbat Haramosh Massif or the southern margin of the Asian crust. The start of Kamlial Formation deposition at this locality at 18 Ma marks a major break with the older Murree Formation rocks, which were deposited by rivers draining predominantly the Himalayan thrust stack south of the arc. We interpret this change as the result of diversion of the paleo-Indus River to its present position, which crosses the Kohistan arc and Himalayas and debouches into the foreland. If the rapidly exhuming subordinate source region were the Nanga Parbat Haramosh Massif, then initiation of its uplift would have resulted in significant arc detritus to the basin as the overlying arc carapace was exhumed. As the carapace was progressively breached, arc material would have become a less substantial component of detritus to the basin, consistent with the reported petrography of the overlying Siwalik deposits.

Bibliographic note

I conceived the idea, devised/steered the project, provided funding, led interpretations and wrote the paper. Co-authors provided analyses/ in-country liaison. This is the first paper to date drainage capture of the Indus River, and is being used by IODP to formulate the drilling strategy for the Indus Fan Leg. RAE_import_type : Journal article RAE_uoa_type : Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences