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Environmental risk factors associated with the persistence of conduct difficulties in children with intellectual disabilities and autistic spectrum disorders

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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>12/2014
<mark>Journal</mark>Research in Developmental Disabilities
Issue number12
Volume35
Number of pages10
Pages (from-to)3508-3517
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date16/09/14
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

We investigated the association between exposure to environmental risks in early childhood and the prevalence and persistence of conduct difficulties (CD) in children with intellectual disability (ID) who did not have autistic spectrum disorder (ASD), children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children. Results indicated that: (1) exposure to risk was associated with elevated prevalence of CD at age three and, for TD children and children with ID, increased risk of CD persisting to ages five and seven; (2) at all levels of risk, children with ASD were more likely to show persistent CD than other children; (3) children with ID were no more likely to show persistent CD than TD children at low levels of exposure to environmental risk.