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Evidence for Major Emissions of PCBs in the West African Region

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Evidence for Major Emissions of PCBs in the West African Region. / Gioia, Rosalinda; Eckhardt, Sabine; Breivik, Knut; Jaward, Foday M.; Prieto, Ailette; Nizzetto, Luca; Jones, Kevin C.

In: Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 45, No. 4, 15.02.2011, p. 1349-1355.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

Harvard

Gioia, R, Eckhardt, S, Breivik, K, Jaward, FM, Prieto, A, Nizzetto, L & Jones, KC 2011, 'Evidence for Major Emissions of PCBs in the West African Region', Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 1349-1355. https://doi.org/10.1021/es1025239

APA

Gioia, R., Eckhardt, S., Breivik, K., Jaward, F. M., Prieto, A., Nizzetto, L., & Jones, K. C. (2011). Evidence for Major Emissions of PCBs in the West African Region. Environmental Science and Technology, 45(4), 1349-1355. https://doi.org/10.1021/es1025239

Vancouver

Gioia R, Eckhardt S, Breivik K, Jaward FM, Prieto A, Nizzetto L et al. Evidence for Major Emissions of PCBs in the West African Region. Environmental Science and Technology. 2011 Feb 15;45(4):1349-1355. https://doi.org/10.1021/es1025239

Author

Gioia, Rosalinda ; Eckhardt, Sabine ; Breivik, Knut ; Jaward, Foday M. ; Prieto, Ailette ; Nizzetto, Luca ; Jones, Kevin C. / Evidence for Major Emissions of PCBs in the West African Region. In: Environmental Science and Technology. 2011 ; Vol. 45, No. 4. pp. 1349-1355.

Bibtex

@article{e15fa22109534cfe841b0a5d3ed07958,
title = "Evidence for Major Emissions of PCBs in the West African Region",
abstract = "In previous studies unexpectedly high air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were observed in shipbased measurements made similar to 400 km off parts of the West African coast. To investigate further (i) samples were taken on board the RV Polarstern during a cruise from Germany to South Africa in October-November 2007; (ii) samples were obtained on Cape Verde Island during the same period to monitor airflows from Africa; and (iii) passive samplers were deployed in four West African countries to try to characterize potential sources on land. Results were as follows: on Cape Verde and on the ship air masses came predominantly (similar to 95 from the African continent; the shipboard Sigma(29)PCB concentrations off West Africa ranged from 10 to 360 pg m(-3) and from 6 to 99 pg m(-3) in Cape Verde; the highest land-based concentrations were observed in Ivory Coast and the Gambia (up to 300 pg m(-3)) and the lowest was observed in Ghana (9 pg m-3). Taken together, these and previous studies indicate there are more major emission(s) of PCBs and different source types in parts of West Africa than accounted for in current global atmospheric emissions estimates. Results from the FLEXPART model and PAH measurements show that emission inventories and biomass burning cannot fully explain the high PCB concentrations. Potential sources of the high PCB levels to the African regions are discussed, namely illegal dumping of PCB containing waste with release via volatilization and uncontrolled burning, and the storage and breakup of old ships.",
author = "Rosalinda Gioia and Sabine Eckhardt and Knut Breivik and Jaward, {Foday M.} and Ailette Prieto and Luca Nizzetto and Jones, {Kevin C.}",
year = "2011",
month = feb,
day = "15",
doi = "10.1021/es1025239",
language = "English",
volume = "45",
pages = "1349--1355",
journal = "Environmental Science and Technology",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "4",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evidence for Major Emissions of PCBs in the West African Region

AU - Gioia, Rosalinda

AU - Eckhardt, Sabine

AU - Breivik, Knut

AU - Jaward, Foday M.

AU - Prieto, Ailette

AU - Nizzetto, Luca

AU - Jones, Kevin C.

PY - 2011/2/15

Y1 - 2011/2/15

N2 - In previous studies unexpectedly high air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were observed in shipbased measurements made similar to 400 km off parts of the West African coast. To investigate further (i) samples were taken on board the RV Polarstern during a cruise from Germany to South Africa in October-November 2007; (ii) samples were obtained on Cape Verde Island during the same period to monitor airflows from Africa; and (iii) passive samplers were deployed in four West African countries to try to characterize potential sources on land. Results were as follows: on Cape Verde and on the ship air masses came predominantly (similar to 95 from the African continent; the shipboard Sigma(29)PCB concentrations off West Africa ranged from 10 to 360 pg m(-3) and from 6 to 99 pg m(-3) in Cape Verde; the highest land-based concentrations were observed in Ivory Coast and the Gambia (up to 300 pg m(-3)) and the lowest was observed in Ghana (9 pg m-3). Taken together, these and previous studies indicate there are more major emission(s) of PCBs and different source types in parts of West Africa than accounted for in current global atmospheric emissions estimates. Results from the FLEXPART model and PAH measurements show that emission inventories and biomass burning cannot fully explain the high PCB concentrations. Potential sources of the high PCB levels to the African regions are discussed, namely illegal dumping of PCB containing waste with release via volatilization and uncontrolled burning, and the storage and breakup of old ships.

AB - In previous studies unexpectedly high air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were observed in shipbased measurements made similar to 400 km off parts of the West African coast. To investigate further (i) samples were taken on board the RV Polarstern during a cruise from Germany to South Africa in October-November 2007; (ii) samples were obtained on Cape Verde Island during the same period to monitor airflows from Africa; and (iii) passive samplers were deployed in four West African countries to try to characterize potential sources on land. Results were as follows: on Cape Verde and on the ship air masses came predominantly (similar to 95 from the African continent; the shipboard Sigma(29)PCB concentrations off West Africa ranged from 10 to 360 pg m(-3) and from 6 to 99 pg m(-3) in Cape Verde; the highest land-based concentrations were observed in Ivory Coast and the Gambia (up to 300 pg m(-3)) and the lowest was observed in Ghana (9 pg m-3). Taken together, these and previous studies indicate there are more major emission(s) of PCBs and different source types in parts of West Africa than accounted for in current global atmospheric emissions estimates. Results from the FLEXPART model and PAH measurements show that emission inventories and biomass burning cannot fully explain the high PCB concentrations. Potential sources of the high PCB levels to the African regions are discussed, namely illegal dumping of PCB containing waste with release via volatilization and uncontrolled burning, and the storage and breakup of old ships.

U2 - 10.1021/es1025239

DO - 10.1021/es1025239

M3 - Journal article

VL - 45

SP - 1349

EP - 1355

JO - Environmental Science and Technology

JF - Environmental Science and Technology

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 4

ER -