The frequency and fidelity of Ac transposition, and that of its non-autonomous derivative Ds, were investigated in flax callus. Flax (Linum usitatissimum var. Antares) hypocotyls were transformed with Agrobacterium Ti plasmid vectors containing the Ac or Ds element inserted within the untranslated leader sequence of a chimaeric neomycin phosphotransferase II gene. Kanamycin resistant tissues were produced as a result of excision of Ac in around 35% of the total number of Ac-containing transformants. In contrast, no excision was observed from transformants containing the Ds element. Whilst Ac appears to have excised completely from T-DNAs, little evidence was found to infer reintegration of the Ac element into the genome.