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Expected, sensed, and desired: A framework for designing sensing-based interaction

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


  • Steve Benford
  • Holger Schnadelbach
  • Boriana Koleva
  • Rob Anastasi
  • Chris Greenhalgh
  • Tom Rodden
  • Jonathan Green
  • Ahmed Ghali
  • Tony Pridmore
  • Bill Gaver
  • Andy Boucher
  • Brendan Walker
  • Sarah Pennington
  • Albrecht Schmidt
  • Hans Gellersen
  • Anthony Steed
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>2005
<mark>Journal</mark>ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction
Number of pages28
<mark>Original language</mark>English


Movements of interfaces can be analyzed in terms of whether they are expected, sensed, and desired. Expected movements are those that users naturally perform; sensed are those that can be measured by a computer; and desired movements are those that are required by a given application. We show how a systematic comparison of expected, sensed, and desired movements, especially with regard to how they do not precisely overlap, can reveal potential problems with an interface and also inspire new features. We describe how this approach has been applied to the design of three interfaces: pointing flashlights at walls and posters in order to play sounds; the Augurscope II, a mobile augmented reality interface for outdoors; and the Drift Table, an item of furniture that uses load sensing to control the display of aerial photographs. We propose that this approach can help to build a bridge between the analytic and inspirational approaches to design and can help designers meet the challenges raised by a diversification of sensing technologies and interface forms, increased mobility, and an emerging focus on technologies for everyday life.