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Globalization, Europeanization, Complexity and the Future of Scandinavian Exceptionalism.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Journal publication date1/10/2003
Number of pages18
Original languageEnglish


Throughout much of the twentieth century, the Scandinavian countries have been a problem for leftist and rightist visions of global order because, with various adaptations, they have continued to successfully develop on their exceptional path of market openness and social inclusiveness. How can this be explained? From a traditional social-science perspective, it cannot. However, from a complexity perspective, where there are no rigid hegemonic fundamental human orders such as globalization and Europeanization, nation-states evolve through complex adaptation with their global surroundings. From this perspective, diversity and exceptionalism—not order—are the norm.

Bibliographic note

RAE_import_type : Journal article RAE_uoa_type : Politics and International Studies