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Hard Lessons: Effort-Inducing Interfaces Benefit Spatial Learning

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsPaper

Published

Publication date2007
Host publicationProceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Place of publicationNew York, NY, USA
PublisherACM
Pages1571-1580
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)978-1-59593-593-9
Original languageEnglish

Publication series

NameCHI '07
PublisherACM

Abstract

Interface designers normally strive for a design that minimises the user’s effort. However, when the design’s objective is to train users to interact with interfaces that are highly dependent on spatial properties (e.g. keypad layout or gesture shapes) we contend that designers should consider explicitly increasing the mental effort of interaction. To test the hypothesis that effort aids spatial memory, we designed a “frost-brushing” interface that forces the user to mentally retrieve spatial information, or to physically brush away the frost to obtain visual guidance. We report results from two experiments using virtual keypad interfaces – the first concerns spatial location learning of buttons on the keypad, and the second concerns both location and trajectory learning of gesture shape. The results support our hypothesis, showing that the frost-brushing design improved spatial learning. The participants’ subjective responses emphasised the connections between effort, engagement, boredom, frustration, and enjoyment, suggesting that effort requires careful parameterisation to maximise its effectiveness.