12,000

We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK

93%

93% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating

Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Hard X-ray spectroscopy using a small-format Tl...
View graph of relations

« Back

Hard X-ray spectroscopy using a small-format TlBr array.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published

  • Alan; Owens
  • M. Bavdaz
  • G. Brammertz
  • V. Gostilo
  • N. Haack
  • A. Kozorezov
  • I. Lisjutin
  • A. Peacock
  • S. Zatoloka
Journal publication date2003
JournalNuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment
Journal number2-3
Volume497
Number of pages11
Pages359-369
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

We report X-ray measurements on a prototype 3×3 TlBr pixel array, produced to assess the technological feasibility of making a Fano limited imager, which can operate near room temperature. The device was fabricated on monocrystalline material of size 2.7×2.7×1.0 mm3. It has a pixel size of 350×350 μm2 and pitch of 450 μm. Measurements were carried out on all pixels over the energy range 5.9–662 keV using radioactive sources. The leakage currents were found to be low enough to allow room-temperature operation, with typical energy resolutions of 20 keV FWHM at 59.95 keV under full-area illumination. At a reduced detector temperature of –30°C, these fell to 4 keV FWHM. Although the spectral performance of the present array is currently impaired by material limitations, its spectral acuity was found to be greatly enhanced by the small pixel effect. Additional photon metrology was carried out at the Hamburger Synchrotron-strahlungslabor radiation facility. Under monochromatic pencil beam illumination, the measured energy resolutions at 20 keV were 3 keV FWHM at −30°C. The spatial uniformity of the array was measured using a 50×50 μm2, 20 keV monoenergetic X-ray beam, raster scanned over the entire active area. The response, in terms of count rate, gain and energy resolution was found to be uniform at the few percent level, consistent with statistics. It was observed during these measurements, that the X-ray response of the pixels was unstable, showing time-dependent gain shifts indicative of polarization effects. The magnitude of the effect was proportional to the total energy deposition per unit time. Lastly, the use of TlBr arrays in nuclear medicine applications is discussed with particular emphasis on radio-guided surgical probes. Recommendations for an optimized design are given.