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Identifying and quantifying natural CO2 sequestration processes over geological timescales: The Jackson Dome CO2 Deposit, USA

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published

  • Zheng Zhou
  • Chris J. Ballentine
  • Martin Schoell
  • Scott H. Stevens
Journal publication date1/06/2012
JournalGeochimica and Cosmochimica Acta
Journal number1
Volume86
Number of pages19
Pages257-275
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

CO2 sources, sinks and migration mechanisms in natural CO2 gas fields provide critical analogues for developing the safe application of anthropogenic CO2 sequestration technologies. Here we use noble gas and carbon isotopes, together with other gases, to identify and quantify the origin, transport and trapping mechanisms of CO2 in the Late Cretaceous Jackson Dome CO2 gas deposit (98.75% to 99.38% CO2). Located in central Mississippi, USA, and producing from >5000 m, it is one of the deepest commercial CO2 gas fields in the world. 10 gas samples from producing wells were determined for their noble gas, chemical and stable carbon isotope composition. He-3/He-4 ratios range between 4.27R(a) and 5.01R(a) (where R-a is the atmospheric value of 1.4 x 10(-6)), indicating a strong mantle signature. Similar to CO2 deposits worldwide, CO2/He-3 decreases with increasing groundwater-derived Ne-20 (and He-4). We model several different processes that could account for the Jackson Dome data, and conclude that, similar to other CO2 dominated deposits, a Groundwater Gas Stripping and Re-dissolution (GGS-R) process best accounts for observed Ne-20/Ar-36, Kr-84/Ar-36, CO2/He-3, delta C-13(CO2), He-4, Ne-20 and Ar-36. In this context, crustal and magmatic CO2 components contribute 57% and 43%, respectively. Changes in CO2/He-3 across the field show that groundwater contact is responsible for up to 75% loss of original emplaced CO2. delta C-13(CO2) variance limits the degree of precipitation to be less than 27%, with the remaining CO2 loss being accounted for by dissolution only. A higher degree of dissolution gas loss and evidence for water contact at the reservoir crest compared to the reservoir flanks is used to argue that CO2 in this system has not undergone subsequent loss to either dissolution or precipitation since shortly after reservoir filling at over 60 Ma. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.