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Incorporation of nanoparticles in glass ionomer cements: Clinical applications, properties, and future perspectives

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Abstract

Within the field of restorative dentistry, the incredible advances in dental materials research have led the profession into the “post-amalgam era” with state-of-the-art patient care. These new materials and techniques have emerged to blur the interface between biological and artificial structures. It has been clearly established that this new biomimetic approach to restorative dentistry is possible through the use of glass ionomer cements (GICs). The development of nanomaterials has moved nanotechnology from its theoretical foundations into mainstream practice. The chemistry and structure of the GICs and the nature and morphology of the particles are reviewed in relation to their influence on setting behavior and adhesive potential. To further that aim, this chapter investigated the various composition and their individual properties including mechanical, physical, thermal, biocompatibility, technique sensitivity, and mode and rate of failure of restorations from a search of peer-reviewed literature. As a result of ongoing research in this area and with the development of nanotechnology, the future prospects of glass ionomer and resin-modified GICs are encouraging. The clinical indication of GIC in a mechanically loaded situation is usually hindered, therefore reducing the glass particles to a nanoscale enhances the mechanical properties and ever-increasing research effort leads it to be a promising future clinical material. © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.