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Interpretation of in situ speciation measurements of inorganic and organically complexed trace metals in freshwater by DGT

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Journal publication date15/09/2008
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Number of pages7
Original languageEnglish


The dynamic speciation technique, diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT), has been used in freshwater to determine simultaneously, from a single set of in situ measurements, (1) the equilibrium distribution of metal ions between simple inorganic complexes and larger organic complexes and (2) information on the rates of dissociation of these complexes. DGT devices with different diffusion layer thicknesses (0.3, 0.54, 1.34, and 2.14 mm) were used to estimate the in situ dissociation kinetics. Information on the species distribution was obtained by using two types of gel, which allow relatively free (polyacrylamide, APA) and more retarded (restricted, RES) diffusion of the metal complexes. The full theoretical basis of the technique is developed and applied to in situ measurements of Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb in a pristine river (Wyre, U.K.), with high DOC(15mg L(-1)), assuming that organic complexes are dominated by fulvic acid. These first DGT measurements that do not rely on assumptions about complex lability or the distribution of species, are compared to total dissolved measurements, previously reported speciation calculations and measurements using alternative speciation techniques. Examination of calculation consistency suggests that the effective mean diffusion coefficients of metal complexes with organic matter under in situ conditions may be larger than those measured in the laboratory using extracted fulvic acid.