This report includes details of the clinical and pathologic features of 31 dogs with a range of systemic illness and granulomatous lymphadenopathy associated with the presence of birefringent crystalline material within lymph nodes. Similar crystalline material was found in the lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma (n = 9) and as an incidental finding within the canine lung (n = 9). The mineral content of these crystals was determined by electron microprobe analysis and interpreted in light of the composition of known geological or human-made compounds. A wide range of elements was identified including silicon, sulfur, copper, calcium, and aluminium, with lesser proportions of phosphorus, sodium, potassium, iron, magnesium, titanium, nickel, and chromium. Many of these compounds may have originated from exogenous natural and human-made sources, but some compounds (notably phosphates and sulfates) are uncommon or not found in nature and may have been formed within the tissues of the body (biomineralization). The inflammatory response induced by the presence of these minerals within lymphoid tissue may trigger altered immunoregulation, accounting for the spectrum of disease observed.