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Lessons from conducting trans-national Internet-mediated participatory research with hidden populations of cannabis cultivators

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Lessons from conducting trans-national Internet-mediated participatory research with hidden populations of cannabis cultivators. / Barratt, Monica; Potter, Gary; Wouters, Marije; Wilkins, Chris; Werse, Bernd; Perälä, Jussi; Pedersen, Michael; Nguyen, Holly; Malm, Aili; Lenton, Simon; Korf, Dirk; Klein, Axel; Heyde, Julie; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Frank, Vibeke Asmussen; Decorte, Tom; Blok, Thomas.

In: International Journal of Drug Policy, Vol. 26, No. 3, 03.2015, p. 238-249.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Harvard

Barratt, M, Potter, G, Wouters, M, Wilkins, C, Werse, B, Perälä, J, Pedersen, M, Nguyen, H, Malm, A, Lenton, S, Korf, D, Klein, A, Heyde, J, Hakkarainen, P, Frank, VA, Decorte, T & Blok, T 2015, 'Lessons from conducting trans-national Internet-mediated participatory research with hidden populations of cannabis cultivators', International Journal of Drug Policy, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 238-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.12.004

APA

Barratt, M., Potter, G., Wouters, M., Wilkins, C., Werse, B., Perälä, J., Pedersen, M., Nguyen, H., Malm, A., Lenton, S., Korf, D., Klein, A., Heyde, J., Hakkarainen, P., Frank, V. A., Decorte, T., & Blok, T. (2015). Lessons from conducting trans-national Internet-mediated participatory research with hidden populations of cannabis cultivators. International Journal of Drug Policy, 26(3), 238-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.12.004

Vancouver

Barratt M, Potter G, Wouters M, Wilkins C, Werse B, Perälä J et al. Lessons from conducting trans-national Internet-mediated participatory research with hidden populations of cannabis cultivators. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2015 Mar;26(3):238-249. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.12.004

Author

Barratt, Monica ; Potter, Gary ; Wouters, Marije ; Wilkins, Chris ; Werse, Bernd ; Perälä, Jussi ; Pedersen, Michael ; Nguyen, Holly ; Malm, Aili ; Lenton, Simon ; Korf, Dirk ; Klein, Axel ; Heyde, Julie ; Hakkarainen, Pekka ; Frank, Vibeke Asmussen ; Decorte, Tom ; Blok, Thomas. / Lessons from conducting trans-national Internet-mediated participatory research with hidden populations of cannabis cultivators. In: International Journal of Drug Policy. 2015 ; Vol. 26, No. 3. pp. 238-249.

Bibtex

@article{1202b3de6751429e9a40252d6fda0e37,
title = "Lessons from conducting trans-national Internet-mediated participatory research with hidden populations of cannabis cultivators",
abstract = "BackgroundInternet-mediated research methods are increasingly used to access hidden populations. The International Cannabis Cultivation Questionnaire (ICCQ) is an online survey designed to facilitate international comparisons into the relatively under-researched but increasingly significant phenomenon of domestic cannabis cultivation. The Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium has used the ICCQ to survey over 6000 cannabis cultivators across 11 countries. In this paper, we describe and reflect upon our methodological approach, focusing on the digital and traditional recruitment methods used to access this hidden population and the challenges of working across multiple countries, cultures and languages.MethodsDescriptive statistics showing eligibility and completion rates and recruitment source by country of residence.ResultsOver three quarters of eligible respondents who were presented with the survey were included in the final sample of n = 6528. English-speaking countries expended more effort to recruit participants than non-English-speaking countries. The most effective recruitment modes were cannabis websites/groups (33%), Facebook (14%) and news articles (11%). While respondents recruited through news articles were older, growing practice variables were strikingly similar between these main recruitment modes.ConclusionThrough this process, we learnt that there are trade-offs between hosting multiple surveys in each country vs. using one integrated database. We also found that although perceived anonymity is routinely assumed to be a benefit of using digital research methodologies, there are significant limits to research participant anonymity in the current era of mass digital surveillance, especially when the target group is particularly concerned about evading law enforcement. Finally, we list a number of specific recommendations for future researchers utilising Internet-mediated approaches to researching hidden populations.",
keywords = "Hidden population, Cross-national, Internet, Recruitment, Participatory research, Web survey",
author = "Monica Barratt and Gary Potter and Marije Wouters and Chris Wilkins and Bernd Werse and Jussi Per{\"a}l{\"a} and Michael Pedersen and Holly Nguyen and Aili Malm and Simon Lenton and Dirk Korf and Axel Klein and Julie Heyde and Pekka Hakkarainen and Frank, {Vibeke Asmussen} and Tom Decorte and Thomas Blok",
year = "2015",
month = mar
doi = "10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.12.004",
language = "English",
volume = "26",
pages = "238--249",
journal = "International Journal of Drug Policy",
issn = "0955-3959",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Lessons from conducting trans-national Internet-mediated participatory research with hidden populations of cannabis cultivators

AU - Barratt, Monica

AU - Potter, Gary

AU - Wouters, Marije

AU - Wilkins, Chris

AU - Werse, Bernd

AU - Perälä, Jussi

AU - Pedersen, Michael

AU - Nguyen, Holly

AU - Malm, Aili

AU - Lenton, Simon

AU - Korf, Dirk

AU - Klein, Axel

AU - Heyde, Julie

AU - Hakkarainen, Pekka

AU - Frank, Vibeke Asmussen

AU - Decorte, Tom

AU - Blok, Thomas

PY - 2015/3

Y1 - 2015/3

N2 - BackgroundInternet-mediated research methods are increasingly used to access hidden populations. The International Cannabis Cultivation Questionnaire (ICCQ) is an online survey designed to facilitate international comparisons into the relatively under-researched but increasingly significant phenomenon of domestic cannabis cultivation. The Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium has used the ICCQ to survey over 6000 cannabis cultivators across 11 countries. In this paper, we describe and reflect upon our methodological approach, focusing on the digital and traditional recruitment methods used to access this hidden population and the challenges of working across multiple countries, cultures and languages.MethodsDescriptive statistics showing eligibility and completion rates and recruitment source by country of residence.ResultsOver three quarters of eligible respondents who were presented with the survey were included in the final sample of n = 6528. English-speaking countries expended more effort to recruit participants than non-English-speaking countries. The most effective recruitment modes were cannabis websites/groups (33%), Facebook (14%) and news articles (11%). While respondents recruited through news articles were older, growing practice variables were strikingly similar between these main recruitment modes.ConclusionThrough this process, we learnt that there are trade-offs between hosting multiple surveys in each country vs. using one integrated database. We also found that although perceived anonymity is routinely assumed to be a benefit of using digital research methodologies, there are significant limits to research participant anonymity in the current era of mass digital surveillance, especially when the target group is particularly concerned about evading law enforcement. Finally, we list a number of specific recommendations for future researchers utilising Internet-mediated approaches to researching hidden populations.

AB - BackgroundInternet-mediated research methods are increasingly used to access hidden populations. The International Cannabis Cultivation Questionnaire (ICCQ) is an online survey designed to facilitate international comparisons into the relatively under-researched but increasingly significant phenomenon of domestic cannabis cultivation. The Global Cannabis Cultivation Research Consortium has used the ICCQ to survey over 6000 cannabis cultivators across 11 countries. In this paper, we describe and reflect upon our methodological approach, focusing on the digital and traditional recruitment methods used to access this hidden population and the challenges of working across multiple countries, cultures and languages.MethodsDescriptive statistics showing eligibility and completion rates and recruitment source by country of residence.ResultsOver three quarters of eligible respondents who were presented with the survey were included in the final sample of n = 6528. English-speaking countries expended more effort to recruit participants than non-English-speaking countries. The most effective recruitment modes were cannabis websites/groups (33%), Facebook (14%) and news articles (11%). While respondents recruited through news articles were older, growing practice variables were strikingly similar between these main recruitment modes.ConclusionThrough this process, we learnt that there are trade-offs between hosting multiple surveys in each country vs. using one integrated database. We also found that although perceived anonymity is routinely assumed to be a benefit of using digital research methodologies, there are significant limits to research participant anonymity in the current era of mass digital surveillance, especially when the target group is particularly concerned about evading law enforcement. Finally, we list a number of specific recommendations for future researchers utilising Internet-mediated approaches to researching hidden populations.

KW - Hidden population

KW - Cross-national

KW - Internet

KW - Recruitment

KW - Participatory research

KW - Web survey

U2 - 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.12.004

DO - 10.1016/j.drugpo.2014.12.004

M3 - Journal article

VL - 26

SP - 238

EP - 249

JO - International Journal of Drug Policy

JF - International Journal of Drug Policy

SN - 0955-3959

IS - 3

ER -