The wound response of plants is characterised by rapid changes in gene expression, biochemistry and physiology, and is important both in its own right and as a model for studying events elicited by herbivory. We have recently identified links between light and the wound response in Arabidopsis leaves. This includes an influence of the external light environment on the molecular and biochemical response to wounding, and the observation that endogenous bioluminescence (light emission) is a consequence of tissue damage. Here, we show that this link extends to the production of reactive oxygen species. We show that wounding causes rapid, light-dependent production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in chloroplasts via disruption of photosynthesis, and that wound-induced bioluminescence is a consequence of the generation of singlet oxygen.