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Liquid He-4 and its superfluidity.

Research output: Contribution in Book/Report/ProceedingsChapter


Publication date2003
Host publicationPatterns of Symmetry Breaking
EditorsH. Arodz, J. Dziarmaga, W. H. Zurek
Place of publicationDordrecht
Pages37 -82
ISBN (Print)1-4020-1744-8
Original languageEnglish

Publication series

NameNATO Science, Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry


The properties of liquid 4He, and the present understanding of its superuidity, are reviewed. Brief accounts are given of its main physical properties, the 2-fluid model, the Landau excitation model, quantized vortex lines, and critical velocities and their origins. Two experiments in progress on vortex creation and decay are discussed in more detail: an attempt to carry out Zurek's experiment, using the superuid transition to model the GUT symmetry-breaking transition of the early universe; and an exploratory investigation of quantized turbulence in the mechanical vacuum below 50 mK.

Bibliographic note

Proceedings of Conference, the NATO-Advanced-Study Institute on Patterns of Symmetry Breaking Cracow, Poland, September 15-29, 2002.