Emergency responders need location and navigation support, but few commercial or research localization systems are designed with them in mind. Harsh conditions and strict requirements make applying standard methods difficult. Preinstalled location systems, wireless sensor networks, and inertial sensing all have benefits and drawbacks when considering emergency response requirements. This survey of commercial products and research projects developed for such scenarios shows how these methods have been combined to address the concerns of firefighters and other indoor search-and-rescue personnel. In particular, a trade-off exists between easy deployment and good quality location support.