People and their performance are key to an organization's effectiveness. This review describes an evidence-based framework of the links between some key organizational influences and staff performance, health and well-being. This preliminary framework integrates management and psychological approaches, with the aim of assisting future explanation, prediction and organizational change. Health care is taken as the focus of this review, as there are concerns internationally about health care effectiveness. The framework considers empirical evidence for links between the following organizational levels:
1. Context (organizational culture and inter-group relations; resources, including staffing; physical environment)
2. People management (HRM practices and strategies; job design, workload and teamwork; employee involvement and control over work; leadership and support)
3. Psychological consequences for employees (health and stress; satisfaction and commitment; knowledge, skills and motivation)
4. Employee behaviour (absenteeism and turnover; task and contextual performance; errors and near misses)
5. Organizational performance; patient care.This review contributes to an evidence base for policies and practices of people management and performance management. Its usefulness will depend on future empirical research, using appropriate research designs, sufficient study power and measures that are reliable and valid.