Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Middle-Class Offenders: A 35-Year Follow-Up
View graph of relations

Middle-Class Offenders: A 35-Year Follow-Up

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


<mark>Journal publication date</mark>07/2012
<mark>Journal</mark>British Journal of Criminology
Issue number4
Number of pages22
Pages (from-to)765-786
Early online date30/05/12
<mark>Original language</mark>English


The long-term outcome for middle-class offenders after conviction is an under-researched area in criminology. This present study considers 317 offenders—with a follow-up of at least 35 years—who are seeking white-collar employment after conviction. On the basis of their previous criminal history, five clusters of offenders can be identified using latent class analysis (LCA): low-rate whitecollar, low-rate general, medium-rate acquisitive specialists, medium/high-rate generalists and high-rate generalists. Of the total series, 40 per cent were reconvicted of any standard-list offence, 24 per cent were reconvicted of a white-collar offence and 8 per cent were reconvicted of a sex or violence offence. The study helps to support the notion that middle-class persons are very much part of ‘the crime problem’.