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    Rights statement: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Intelligence History on 07/04/2017, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/16161262.2017.1309172

    Accepted author manuscript, 510 KB, PDF document

    Available under license: CC BY-NC: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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Military governments, the ISI and political hybridity in contemporary Pakistan: from independence to Musharraf

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>07/2017
<mark>Journal</mark>Journal of Intelligence History
Issue number2
Volume16
Number of pages22
Pages (from-to)172-193
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date7/04/17
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

While most analysts have tended to view Pakistan’s domestic politics and political system as
authoritarian and label it as a military dictatorship, this article highlights the concept of political ‘hybridity’.

Emphasising the potential for more democratic elements from within Pakistani society in relation to politics, the article traces interactions that have taken place in the interface between democratic forces and authoritarian/military elements. Using the concept of political hybridity and ‘hybrid government’ brings to light the inherent complexities and potential contradictions of interactions between democratic forces and authoritarian elements in Pakistan, from the Ayub era soon after independence to the more recent times of Musharraf.

Bibliographic note

This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Journal of Intelligence History on 07/04/2017, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/16161262.2017.1309172