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    Rights statement: This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication inThe Journal of Heredity following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version Wai-Ling Lai, Jactty Chew, Derek Gatherer, Dusit Ngoprasert, Sadequr Rahman, Qasim Ayub, Adrian Kannan, Eleanor Vaughan, Siew Te Wong, Noor Azleen Mohd Kulaimi, Shyamala Ratnayeke, Mitochondrial DNA profiling reveals two lineages of sun bears in East and West Malaysia, Journal of Heredity, , esab004, https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esab004 is available online at: add url

    Accepted author manuscript, 0.99 MB, PDF document

    Embargo ends: 13/01/22

    Available under license: CC BY-NC: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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Mitochondrial DNA profiling reveals two lineages of sun bears in East and West Malaysia

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articlepeer-review

E-pub ahead of print
  • Wai-Ling Lai
  • Jactty Chew
  • Derek Gatherer
  • Dusit Ngoprasert
  • Sadequr Rahman
  • Qasim Ayub
  • Adrian Kannan
  • Eleanor Vaughan
  • Siew Te Wong
  • Noor Azleen Mohd Kulaimi
  • Shyamala Ratnayeke
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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>13/01/2021
<mark>Journal</mark>The Journal of heredity
Publication StatusE-pub ahead of print
Early online date13/01/21
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Sun bear populations are fragmented and at risk from habitat loss and exploitation for body parts. These threats are made worse by significant gaps in knowledge of sun bear population genetic diversity, population connectivity, and taxonomically significant management units. Using a complete sun bear mitochondrial genome, we developed a set of mitochondrial markers to assess haplotype variation and the evolutionary history of sun bears from Peninsular (West) Malaysia, and Sabah (East Malaysia). Genetic samples from 28 sun bears from Peninsular Malaysia, 36 from Sabah, and 18 from Thailand were amplified with primers targeting a 1,800 bp region of the mitochondrial genome including the complete mitochondrial control region and adjacent genes. Sequences were analyzed using phylogenetic methods. We identified 51 mitochondrial haplotypes among 82 sun bears. Phylogenetic and network analyses provided strong support for a deep split between Malaysian sun bears and sun bears in East Thailand and Yunnan province in China. The Malaysian lineage was further subdivided into two clades: Peninsular Malaysian and Malaysian Borneo (Sabah). Sun bears from Thailand occurred in both Sabah and Peninsular Malaysian clades. Our study supports recent findings that sun bears from Sundaland form a distinct clade from those in China and Indochina with Thailand possessing lineages from the three clades. Importantly we demonstrate a more recent and clear genetic delineation between sun bears from the Malay Peninsula and Sabah indicating historical barriers to gene flow within the Sundaic region.

Bibliographic note

This is a pre-copy-editing, author-produced PDF of an article accepted for publication inThe Journal of Heredity following peer review. The definitive publisher-authenticated version Wai-Ling Lai, Jactty Chew, Derek Gatherer, Dusit Ngoprasert, Sadequr Rahman, Qasim Ayub, Adrian Kannan, Eleanor Vaughan, Siew Te Wong, Noor Azleen Mohd Kulaimi, Shyamala Ratnayeke, Mitochondrial DNA profiling reveals two lineages of sun bears in East and West Malaysia, Journal of Heredity, , esab004, https://doi.org/10.1093/jhered/esab004 is available online at: add url