We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK


93% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating

Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Modelling the Chloride Signal at the Plynlimon ...
View graph of relations

« Back

Modelling the Chloride Signal at the Plynlimon Catchments, Wales Using a Modified Dynamic TOPMODEL.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Journal publication date30/01/2007
JournalHydrological Processes
Number of pages16
Original languageEnglish


The application of a modified version of dynamic TOPMODEL for two subcatchments at Plynlimon, Wales is described. Conservative chemical mixing within mobile and immobile stores has been added to the hydrological model in an attempt to simulate observed stream chloride concentrations. The model was not fully able to simulate the observed behaviour, in particular the short- to medium-term dynamics. One of the primary problems highlighted by the study was the representation of dry deposition and cloud-droplet-deposited chloride, which formed a significant part of the long-term chloride mass budget. Equifinality of parameter sets inhibited the ability to determine the effective catchment mixing volumes and coefficients or the most likely partition between occult mass inputs and chloride mass inputs determined by catchment immobile-store antecedent conditions. Some success was achieved, in as much as some aspects of the dynamic behaviour of the signal were satisfactorily simulated, although spectral analysis showed that the model could not fully reproduce the 1/f power spectra of observed stream chloride concentrations with its implications of a wide distribution of residence times for water in the catchment.