12,000

We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK

93%

93% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating

Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Modelling the rapid near-surface expansion of g...
View graph of relations

« Back

Modelling the rapid near-surface expansion of gas slugs in low-viscosity magmas.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published

Journal publication date7/11/2008
JournalGeological Society, London, Special Publications
Journal number1
Volume307
Number of pages21
Pages147-167
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

The ascent of large gas bubbles (slugs) in vertical cylindrical conduits and low-viscosity magmas is simulated using 1D mathematical and 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models. Following laboratory evidence, the 1D model defines a constant rise velocity for the slug base and allows gas expansion to accelerate the slug nose through the overlying fluid during ascent. The evolution of rapidly expanding gas slugs observed in laboratory experiments is reproduced well and, at volcano scales, predicts at-surface overpressures of several atmospheres without requiring any initial overpressure at depth. The near-surface dynamics increase slug nose velocities through the overlying magma by a factor of c. 2.5 and the gas expansion results in pre-burst magma surface velocities of c. 35m s21. To examine pressure distributions and the forces exerted on a conduit, 3D CFD simulations were carried out. At volcano scales, the vertical single forces during final slug ascent to the surface are c. 106 N, two orders of magnitude smaller than those associated with verylong-period seismic events at Stromboli. This supports a previous interpretation of these events in which they are generated by gas slugs flowing through changes in conduit geometry, rather than being the direct result of slug eruption processes.