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Novel engineered high performance sugar beetroot 2D nanoplatelet-cementitious composites

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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>30/03/2019
<mark>Journal</mark>Construction and Building Materials
Volume202
Number of pages17
Pages (from-to)546-562
Publication statusPublished
Early online date16/01/19
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

In this paper, we show for the first time that environmentally friendly nanoplatelets synthesized from sugar beetroot waste with surface area and hydroxyl functional groups similar to those of graphene oxide (GO) can be used to significantly enhance the performance of cementitious composites. A comprehensive experimental and numerical simulation study was carried out to examine the performance of the bio waste-derived 2D nanoplatelets (BNP) in cementitious composites. The experimental results revealed that the addition of BNPs decreased the workability of the cement pastes due to their high surface area and dominant hydrophilic functional groups. The experimental results also revealed that the BNP sheets altered the morphology of the hydration phases of the cementitious composites. At 0.20-wt%, the BNP sheets increased the content of the C-S-H gels. At higher concentrations (i.e., 0.40-wt% and 0.60-wt%), however, the BNP sheets increased the content of the calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) products and altered their sizes and morphologies.
The flexural results demonstrated that the 0.20-wt% BNPs produced the highest flexural strength and modulus elasticity and they were increased by 75% and 200%, respectively. The numerical simulations were in good agreement with the fracture test results. Both results showed that the 0.20-wt% BNPs optimal concentration significantly enhanced the fracture properties of the cementitious composite and produced mixed mode crack propagation as a failure mode compared to Mode I crack propagation for the plain cementitious composite due to combined crack bridging and crack deflection toughening mechanisms. Because of this, the fracture energy and the fracture toughness were increased by about 88% and 106%, respectively.