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Occurrence and risk assessment of organophosphorus and brominated flame retardants in the River Aire (UK)

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Journal publication date08/2013
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Number of pages7
Early online date15/05/13
Original languageEnglish


This study presents the occurrence and risk of PBDEs, new brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants along a river affected by urban and industrial pressures (River Aire, UK). Tris(2-choroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloro-1-methylethyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris[2-chloro-1-(chloromethyl)ethyl] phosphate (TDCP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPhP) were detected in all samples, with TCPP present at the highest concentrations, ranging from 113 to 26 050 ng L(-1). BDE-209 was detected in most of the sampled sites, ranging from 17 to 295 ng L(-1), while hexabromobenzene (HBB) and pentabromoethyl benzene (PBEB) were seldom detected. A risk quotients based on predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) and flame retardants water concentration proved significant risk for adverse effects for algae, Daphnia and fish in sites close to industrial and urban sewage discharges. This study provides a protocol for the risk estimation of priority and new generation flame retardants based on river concentrations and toxicological values.