The occurrence of linear- and cyclic-volatile methyl siloxanes (lVMSs and cVMSs, respectively) in various indoor environments, occupational and domestic, in Italy and in the United Kingdom was studied. The results show that the cVMSs are the most abundant, detected in average concentrations that in some cases were as high as 170 μg m− 3. Our study highlights the differences that can be observed between various indoor environments (e.g. domestic like bathrooms, bedrooms, or occupational) and between two countries. In most cases, the concentrations found in the UK are higher than in the respective indoor environments in Italy. The assessment of exposure to these two countries for adults and children revealed significant differences both not only in the levels of exposure, but also in the patterns. In Italy, the biggest part of the exposure to VMSs takes place domestically, whereas in the UK, it is observed for occupational environments.
Additionally, the compound specific isotopic analysis was employed as a source identification technique. The results are promising mainly for D5 that occurs in higher concentrations, but not for the less abundant lVMSs and cVMSs.