Introduction: Aseptic loosening is the commonest complication of cemented total hip arthroplasy. Gaseous voids within the cement mantle are thought to act as stress concentrators and points of origin and preferential fracture propagation at the cement stem interface. Assuming a bone tempereature of 37°C, Bishop recommended heating the prosthesis to 44°C, thereby effecting a reduction in cement-prosthesis interface porosity.The aim of this study was to (I) determine the intra-operative temperature of the femoral cancellous bed prior to insertion of prosthesis, (II) to investigate whether the magnitude of the temperature gradient effects interface porosity (III) to develop clinically relevant recommendations.Materials and Methods: (I) The intra-operative determination of femoral cancellous boney bed temperature. Sterile, single use thermocouples (Mon-a-therm) were used to record interface temperature in six patients, after canal preparation and lavage. (II) A simulated femoral model was designed consisting of a waterbath, set at temperature determined by (I) with an inner water-tight chamber formed by 19mm diameter polyethylene tubing. Cement (Palacos) was non-vacuum mixed (to exaggerate porosity) for 1 minute and injected in a retrograde manner into the inner tube at 3 minutes. Femoral stems (Exeter) were pre-heated in a second waterbath to 18, 32,35,37,40,44°C, were thoroughly dried and lowered into the inner tube by a Lloyd universal testing machine via a custom jig. The cement was left to polymerise.The cement mantle was sectioned transversely, then longitudinally to expose the cement-prosthesis interface. This was stained with acrylic dye to facilitate image analysis. Three mantles for each temperature were produced.Results: (I) The mean femoral canal temperature was 32.3°C, (II) the effect of stem temperature on interface porosity is shown in fig1.Conclusions: Bone temperature is 32°C after canal preparation using contemporary cementing techniques. Heating to 35°C reduces interface porosity, heating to 40°C is optimal.