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Optimizing push/pull envelopes for energy-efficient cloud-sensor systems

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Unlike traditional distributed systems, where the resources/needs of computation and communication dominate the performance equation, sensor-based systems (SBS) raise new metrics and requirements for sensors as well as for computing and communication. This includes sensing latency and energy consumption. In this paper, we present a performance model for SBS based on a three-tier architecture that uses edge devices to connect massive-scale networks of sensors to the cloud. In this architecture, which we call Cloud, Edge, and Beneath (CEB), initial processing of sensor data occurs in- and near-network, in order to achieve system sentience and energy efficiency. To optimize CEB performance, we propose the concept of optimal push/pull envelope (PPE). PPE dynamically and minimally adjusts the base push and pull rates for each sensor, according to the relative characteristics of sensor requests (demand side from the Cloud) and sensor data change (supply side from Beneath). We demonstrate the CEB architecture and its push/pull envelope optimization algorithm in an experimental evaluation that measures energy savings and sentience efficiency over a wide range of practical constraints. In addition, from the experiments we demonstrate that by combining PPE optimization algorithm with lazy sampling algorithm, we can achieve further energy saving. Copyright 2011 ACM.