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    Rights statement: ISSN 0269-9370 Copyright Q 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Persisting high prevalence of pneumococcal carriage among HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Malawi: a cohort study

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

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  • Ellen Heinsbroek
  • Terence Tafatatha
  • Amos Phiri
  • Bagrey Ngwira
  • Amelia C Crampin
  • Jonathan M. Read
  • Neil French
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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>10/09/2015
<mark>Journal</mark>AIDS
Issue number14
Volume29
Number of pages8
Pages (from-to)1837-1844
Publication statusPublished
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: HIV-infected adults have high rates of pneumococcal carriage and invasive disease. We investigated the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on pneumococcal carriage in HIV-infected adults prior to infant pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) rollout.

DESIGN: Observational cohort study.

METHODS: We recruited HIV-infected adults newly attending a rural HIV clinic in northern Malawi between 2008 and 2010. Nasopharyngeal samples were taken at baseline and after 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. We compared pneumococcal carriage by ART status using generalized estimated equation models adjusted for CD4 cell count, sex, seasonality, and other potential confounders.

RESULTS: In total, 336 individuals were included, of which 223 individuals started ART during follow-up. Individuals receiving ART had higher pneumococcal carriage than individuals not receiving ART (25.9 vs. 19.8%, P = 0.03) particularly for serotypes not included in PCV13 (16.1 vs. 9.6% P = 0.003). Following adjustment, increased carriage of non-PCV13 serotypes was still observed for individuals on ART, but results for all serotypes were nonsignificant [all serotypes: adjusted risk ratio (aRR) 1.22 (0.95-1.56); non-PCV13 serotypes: aRR 1.72, 95% CI 1.13-2.62].

CONCLUSION: Pneumococcal carriage in HIV-infected adults in Malawi remained high despite use of ART, consistent with failure of mucosal immune reconstitution in the upper respiratory tract. There was evidence of increased carriage of non-PCV13 serotypes. HIV-infected adults on ART could remain an important reservoir for pneumococcal diversity post infant pneumococcal vaccine introduction. Control of pneumococcal disease in African HIV remains a priority.

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ISSN 0269-9370 Copyright Q 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.