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Polychlorinated naphthalenes in air and snow in the Norwegian Arctic : a local source or an Eastern Arctic phenomenon?

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Polychlorinated naphthalenes in air and snow in the Norwegian Arctic : a local source or an Eastern Arctic phenomenon? / Herbert, B. M. J.; Halsall, C. J.; Villa, S.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Jones, K. C.; Lee, R. G. M.; Kallenborn, R.

In: Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 342, No. 1-3, 15.04.2005, p. 145-160.

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Herbert, B. M. J. ; Halsall, C. J. ; Villa, S. ; Fitzpatrick, L. ; Jones, K. C. ; Lee, R. G. M. ; Kallenborn, R. / Polychlorinated naphthalenes in air and snow in the Norwegian Arctic : a local source or an Eastern Arctic phenomenon?. In: Science of the Total Environment. 2005 ; Vol. 342, No. 1-3. pp. 145-160.

Bibtex

@article{2a07fa0592af4f71aa6c6adcac4dc15d,
title = "Polychlorinated naphthalenes in air and snow in the Norwegian Arctic : a local source or an Eastern Arctic phenomenon?",
abstract = "PCNs were measured in air and snow during separate field campaigns at Ny-{\AA}lesund (April 2001) and Troms{\o} (February/March 2003) in the Norwegian Arctic. Air concentrations ranged from 27 to 48 and 9 to 47 pg ΣPCN m−3 for Ny-{\AA}lesund (n=6) and Troms{\o} (n=10), respectively. These concentrations (including the tri-chlorinated naphthalenes) greatly exceeded concentrations previously measured in the Canadian Arctic, but did fall within the upper range of concentrations observed over the eastern Arctic Ocean and regional seas. Local sources appear to be affecting concentrations observed at both sites, with the presence of several hexa-chlorinated naphthalenes at Troms{\o} probably attributed to local/regional sources. Use of air mass back trajectories at Troms{\o} revealed that background air concentrations in the Norwegian Arctic are likely to range between <9 and 20 pg ΣPCN m−3 and that contemporary concentrations derived close to potential sources (i.e. arctic towns) may equal or exceed those of PCBs. The mean concentration in surface snow was 350 and 240 pg ΣPCN L−1 (meltwater) (or 0.014 and 0.01 pg g−1 (snow)) at Ny-{\AA}lesund and Troms{\o}, respectively. The wide variation in concentrations observed between fresh snowfalls could be explained by different snow densities (as a surrogate of snow surface area), rather than attributed to varying air concentrations. A statistically significant inverse relationship was found between snow density and concentrations of tri- to penta-chlorinated homologues and compliments similar findings for the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This suggests that the vapour-sorbed quantity changes rapidly with snow ageing/compaction; with implications for the fate of these chemicals in the Arctic.",
keywords = "Persistent organic pollutants, Polar, Snow, Air",
author = "Herbert, {B. M. J.} and Halsall, {C. J.} and S. Villa and L. Fitzpatrick and Jones, {K. C.} and Lee, {R. G. M.} and R. Kallenborn",
year = "2005",
month = apr
day = "15",
doi = "10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.12.029",
language = "English",
volume = "342",
pages = "145--160",
journal = "Science of the Total Environment",
issn = "0048-9697",
publisher = "Elsevier Science B.V.",
number = "1-3",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Polychlorinated naphthalenes in air and snow in the Norwegian Arctic : a local source or an Eastern Arctic phenomenon?

AU - Herbert, B. M. J.

AU - Halsall, C. J.

AU - Villa, S.

AU - Fitzpatrick, L.

AU - Jones, K. C.

AU - Lee, R. G. M.

AU - Kallenborn, R.

PY - 2005/4/15

Y1 - 2005/4/15

N2 - PCNs were measured in air and snow during separate field campaigns at Ny-Ålesund (April 2001) and Tromsø (February/March 2003) in the Norwegian Arctic. Air concentrations ranged from 27 to 48 and 9 to 47 pg ΣPCN m−3 for Ny-Ålesund (n=6) and Tromsø (n=10), respectively. These concentrations (including the tri-chlorinated naphthalenes) greatly exceeded concentrations previously measured in the Canadian Arctic, but did fall within the upper range of concentrations observed over the eastern Arctic Ocean and regional seas. Local sources appear to be affecting concentrations observed at both sites, with the presence of several hexa-chlorinated naphthalenes at Tromsø probably attributed to local/regional sources. Use of air mass back trajectories at Tromsø revealed that background air concentrations in the Norwegian Arctic are likely to range between <9 and 20 pg ΣPCN m−3 and that contemporary concentrations derived close to potential sources (i.e. arctic towns) may equal or exceed those of PCBs. The mean concentration in surface snow was 350 and 240 pg ΣPCN L−1 (meltwater) (or 0.014 and 0.01 pg g−1 (snow)) at Ny-Ålesund and Tromsø, respectively. The wide variation in concentrations observed between fresh snowfalls could be explained by different snow densities (as a surrogate of snow surface area), rather than attributed to varying air concentrations. A statistically significant inverse relationship was found between snow density and concentrations of tri- to penta-chlorinated homologues and compliments similar findings for the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This suggests that the vapour-sorbed quantity changes rapidly with snow ageing/compaction; with implications for the fate of these chemicals in the Arctic.

AB - PCNs were measured in air and snow during separate field campaigns at Ny-Ålesund (April 2001) and Tromsø (February/March 2003) in the Norwegian Arctic. Air concentrations ranged from 27 to 48 and 9 to 47 pg ΣPCN m−3 for Ny-Ålesund (n=6) and Tromsø (n=10), respectively. These concentrations (including the tri-chlorinated naphthalenes) greatly exceeded concentrations previously measured in the Canadian Arctic, but did fall within the upper range of concentrations observed over the eastern Arctic Ocean and regional seas. Local sources appear to be affecting concentrations observed at both sites, with the presence of several hexa-chlorinated naphthalenes at Tromsø probably attributed to local/regional sources. Use of air mass back trajectories at Tromsø revealed that background air concentrations in the Norwegian Arctic are likely to range between <9 and 20 pg ΣPCN m−3 and that contemporary concentrations derived close to potential sources (i.e. arctic towns) may equal or exceed those of PCBs. The mean concentration in surface snow was 350 and 240 pg ΣPCN L−1 (meltwater) (or 0.014 and 0.01 pg g−1 (snow)) at Ny-Ålesund and Tromsø, respectively. The wide variation in concentrations observed between fresh snowfalls could be explained by different snow densities (as a surrogate of snow surface area), rather than attributed to varying air concentrations. A statistically significant inverse relationship was found between snow density and concentrations of tri- to penta-chlorinated homologues and compliments similar findings for the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This suggests that the vapour-sorbed quantity changes rapidly with snow ageing/compaction; with implications for the fate of these chemicals in the Arctic.

KW - Persistent organic pollutants

KW - Polar

KW - Snow

KW - Air

U2 - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.12.029

DO - 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.12.029

M3 - Journal article

VL - 342

SP - 145

EP - 160

JO - Science of the Total Environment

JF - Science of the Total Environment

SN - 0048-9697

IS - 1-3

ER -