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    Rights statement: This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Langmuir, copyright ©2020 American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00462

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    Embargo ends: 10/04/21

    Available under license: CC BY-NC: Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License

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Porous Silica-Pillared MXenes with Controllable Interlayer Distances for Long-life Na-ion Batteries

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<mark>Journal publication date</mark>10/04/2020
<mark>Journal</mark>Langmuir
Issue number16
Volume36
Number of pages13
Pages (from-to)4370-4382
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date10/04/20
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

MXenes are a recently discovered class of two-dimensional materials that have shown great potential as electrodes in electrochemical energy storage devices. Despite their promise in this area, MXenes can still suffer limitations in the form of restricted ion accessibility between the closely spaced multistacked MXene layers causing low capacities and poor cycle life. Pillaring, where a secondary species is inserted between layers, has been used to increase interlayer spacings in clays with great success but has had limited application in MXenes. We report a new amine-assisted pillaring methodology that successfully intercalates silica-based pillars between Ti 3C 2 layers. Using this technique, the interlayer spacing can be controlled with the choice of amine and calcination temperature, up to a maximum of 3.2 nm, the largest interlayer spacing reported for an MXene. Another effect of the pillaring is a dramatic increase in surface area, achieving BET surface areas of 235 m 2 g -1, a sixty-fold increase over the unpillared material and the highest reported for MXenes using an intercalation-based method. The intercalation mechanism was revealed by different characterization techniques, allowing the surface chemistry to be optimized for the pillaring process. The porous MXene was tested for Na-ion battery applications and showed superior capacity, rate capability and remarkable stability compared with those of the nonpillared materials, retaining 98.5% capacity between the 50th and 100th cycles. These results demonstrate the applicability and promise of pillaring techniques applied to MXenes providing a new approach to optimizing their properties for a range of applications, including energy storage, conversion, catalysis, and gas separations.

Bibliographic note

This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in Langmuir, copyright ©2020 American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c00462