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Potential availability of trace metals in sediments in southeastern and southern Brazilian shipyard areas using the DGT technique and chemical extraction methods

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

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  • A. Valero
  • K. Umbría-Salinas
  • M. Wallner-Kersanach
  • C.F.D. Andrade
  • M.J.S. Yabe
  • L. Contreira-Pereira
  • J.C. Wasserman
  • K.N. Kuroshima
  • H. Zhang
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Article number136216
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>25/03/2020
<mark>Journal</mark>Science of the Total Environment
Volume710
Number of pages13
Publication StatusPublished
Early online date26/12/19
<mark>Original language</mark>English

Abstract

Speciation and partitioning of trace metals, from solid to solution phases of sediments. control their bioavailability and thus their potential ecological risk to organisms. Therefore, in order to obtain a broad evaluation of their risk, it is necessary to couple methodologies that are able to assess metal mobility in sediment. In this study, the Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT) technique and the application of 0.1 M HCl acid extraction methods, together with solid-state voltammetric sensors, were used with the objective of assessing mobility and potential availability of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in sediment porewaters and solid sediments in southeastern and southern Brazilian shipyard areas. The highest labile metal concentrations were found in shipyards with the longest histories of operations. Trace metal distributions in porewater and in the solid phase of sediments (labile metals) and significant correlations among metals enabled to distinguish the contribution of anti-fouling paint components. The diffusive flux of every metal measured at the surface of the sediment indicated that CU DGT had the highest flux (3.66E-03 mmol.m(-2) d(-1)) in the shipyard with the longest operating time. Therefore, enrichment was observed for Cu, Pb and Zn in sediments, indicating a possible ecological risk level of 'Effects Range Median' to 'Apparent Effects Threshold' for oyster larvae (Mollusca) (Cu). bivalves (Pb) and the infaunal community (Zn). Probable Effect Concentrations (PEC) to sediment-dwelling biota can be expected as well, related to high concentrations of Cu and Zn in sediment. This study allowed a comprehensive evaluation of potential bioavailability and ecological risk of trace metals in aquatic systems where there is continuous and specific input of these elements. The use of the DGT technique with solid-state voltammetry in the sediment of distinct Brazilian estuarine systems demonstrated its potential to be applied in future environmental network programs.