Recognising theatre's usefulness in nation-building and identity formation, most European countries maintain a national theatre. France is unusual in having been the first European country to establish a national theatre, and in having a plurality of national theatres. Although the Comédie-Française (est. 1680) is still regarded by many French people (not to mention foreigners) as the site of France's theatrical nationhood, it is currently one of five - or possibly seven - French national theatres. Each of them occupies a niche fashioned by the interaction of history, political agendas, and the artistic agendas of their directors. The chapter examines the proliferation and re-configuration of France's national theatres since 1968, and the changing national priorities that they reflect.