We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK


93% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating

Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Quantifying the differential contributions of d...
View graph of relations

« Back

Quantifying the differential contributions of deep groundwater to streamflow in nested basins, using both water quality characteristics and water balance

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Journal publication date2014
JournalHydrology Research
Number of pages13
Early online date25/04/14
Original languageEnglish


This paper describes use of a hydro-chemical mixing model and a water budget to investigate the presence of deep runoff pathways in two small, nested sub-catchments of the Eden basin, UK (8.8 km2 Blind Beck and 1.0 km2 Low Hall stream). A linear relationship between bicarbonate concentration and electrical conductivity was used in a two-component mixing model. End-members were identified as a high-solute, deep groundwater and a low-solute, soil-water. The mixing model indicated 69% ±10% deep groundwater in Low Hall for September–December 2008 and 46% ±8% in Blind Beck for the same period. The water budget also indicated more deep groundwater in Low Hall stream. These results were consistent with the findings of rainfall–runoff models which also indicated the presence of high storage, deeper pathways.