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Real-time observation of discrete Andreev tunneling events

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


  • V. F. Maisi
  • O. -P. Saira
  • Yuri Pashkin
  • J. S. Tsai
  • D. V. Averin
  • J. P. Pekola
Article number217003
Journal publication date25/05/2011
JournalPhysical Review Letters
Number of pages4
Original languageEnglish


We provide a direct proof of two-electron Andreev transitions in a superconductor-normal-metal tunnel junction by detecting them in a real-time electron counting experiment. Our results are consistent with ballistic Andreev transport with an order of magnitude higher rate than expected for a uniform barrier, suggesting that only part of the interface is effectively contributing to the transport. These findings are quantitatively supported by our direct current measurements in single-electron transistors with similar tunnel barriers.

Bibliographic note

© 2011 American Physical Society