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Screening of atmospheric short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in India and Pakistan using polyurethane foam based passive air sampler

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published

  • Chakra Chaemfa
  • Yue Xu
  • Jun Li
  • Paromita Chakraborty
  • Jabir Hussain Syed
  • Riffat Naseem Malik
  • Yan Wang
  • Chongguo Tian
  • Gan Zhang
  • Kevin C. Jones
Journal publication date6/05/2014
JournalEnvironmental Science and Technology
Journal number9
Volume48
Number of pages10
Pages4799-4808
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

Production and use of chlorinated paraffins (CPs) have been increasing in India. Distribution of CPs in the area and vicinity have become a great concern due to their persistency and toxicity. Polyurethane foam based passive air samplers (PUF-PAS) was deployed in order to screen the presence of short- and medium- chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in the outdoor atmosphere at many sites in India (in winter 2006) and Pakistan (in winter 2011). Concentrations of SCCPs and MCCPs ranged from not detected (ND) to 47.4 and 0 to 38.2 ng m(-3) with means of 8.11 and 4.83 ng m(-3), respectively. Indian concentrations showed higher average levels of both SCCPs and MCCPs India (10.2 ng m(-3) and 3.62 ng m(-3)than the samples from Pakistan (5.13 ng m(-3) and 4.21 ng m(-3)). Relative abundance patterns of carbon number are C10 > C11 > C12 ∼ C13 for SCCPs and C14 > C15 > C16 C17 for MCCP with similarity to the profiles of samples from China, the biggest CPs producer in the world. Principal Component Analysis suggested that detected SCCPs and MCCPs in this study originated from the same emission source.