We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK


93% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating

Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Serial Position Effects in Short-term Visual Me...
View graph of relations

« Back

Serial Position Effects in Short-term Visual Memory: A SIMPLE Explanation?

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


Journal publication date01/2007
JournalMemory and Cognition
Number of pages15
Original languageEnglish


A version of Sternberg’s (1966) short-term, visual memory recognition paradigm with pictures of unfamiliar faces as stimuli was used in three experiments to assess the applicability of the distinctiveness based SIMPLE model proposed by Brown, Neath & Chater (2002). Initial simulations indicated that the amount of recency predicted increased as the parameter measuring the psychological distinctiveness of the stimulus material (c) increased, and that the amount of primacy was dependent on the extent of proactive interference from previously presented stimuli. The data from experiment 1, which used memory lists of four and five faces varying in visual similarity confirmed the predicted, extended recency effect. However, changes in visual similarity were not found to produce changes in c. In Experiments 2 and 3, the conditions that influence the magnitude of c were explored. These revealed that both the familiarity of the stimulus class before testing, and changes in familiarity due to perceptual learning, influenced distinctiveness as indexed by the parameter c. Overall the empirical data from all three experiments were well-fit by SIMPLE.

Bibliographic note

This manuscript was accepted for publication in Memory and Cognition on 1st January 2007. The copyright is held by Psychonomic Society Publications. This document may not exactly correspond to the final published version. Psychonomic Society Publications disclaims any responsibility or liability for errors in this manuscript.