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Source and H2O content of high-MgO magmas in island arc settings : an experimental study of a primitive calc-alkaline basalt from St Vincent, Lesser Antilles arc.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published

Journal publication date15/06/2002
JournalGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Journal number12
Volume66
Number of pages17
Pages2193-2209
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

Liquidus phase relationships have been determined for a high-MgO basalt (STV301: MgO=12.5 wt%, Ni=250 ppm, Cr=728 ppm) from Black Point, St Vincent (Lesser Antilles arc). Piston-cylinder experiments were conducted between 7.5 and 20 kbar under both hydrous and oxidizing conditions. AuPd capsules were used as containers. Compositions of supraliquidus glasses and mass-balance calculations show that Fe loss is < 10% in the majority of experiments. Two series of water concentrations in melt were investigated: (i) 1.5 wt% and (ii) 4.5 wt% H2O, as determined by SIMS analyses on quenched glasses and with the by difference technique. The Fe3+/Fe2+ partitioning between Cr-Al spinel and melt and olivine-spinel equilibria show that oxidizing fO2 were imposed (NNO + 1.5 for the 1.5 wt% H2O series, NNO + 2.3 for the 4.5 wt% H2O series). For both series of water concentrations, the liquid is multiply-saturated with a spinel lherzolite phase assemblage on its liquidus, at 1235°C, 11.5 kbar (1.5 wt% H2O) and 1185°C, 16 kbar (4.5 wt% H2O). Liquidus phases are homogeneous and comparable to typical mantle compositions. Mineral-melt partition coefficients are generally identical to values under anhydrous conditions. The modal proportion cpx/opx on the liquidus decreases from the 1.5 wt% to the 4.5 wt% H2O series. The experimental data are consistent with STV301 being a product of partial melting of lherzolitic mantle. Conditions of multiple saturation progressively evolve toward lower temperatures and higher pressures with increasing melt H2O concentration. Phase equilibria constraints, i.e., the necessity of preserving the mantle signature seen in high-MgO and picritic arc basalts, and glass inclusion data suggest that STV301 was extracted relatively dry ( 2 wt% H2O) from its mantle source. However, not all primary arc basalts are extracted under similarly dry conditions because more hydrous melts will crystallize during ascent and will not be present unmodified at the surface. From degrees of melting calculated from experiments on KLB-1, extraction of a 12.5 wt% MgO melt with 2 wt% H2O would require a H2O concentration of 0.3 wt% in the sub-arc mantle. For mantle sources fluxed with a slab-derived hydrous component, extracted melts may contain up to 5.5 wt% H2O.