We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK


93% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating

Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > Structural changes in radish seedlings (Raphanu...
View graph of relations

« Back

Structural changes in radish seedlings (Raphanus sativus) exposed to cadmium.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


  • A. P. Vitoria
  • M. Cunha
  • A. P. M. Rodriguez
  • R. A. Azevedo
  • P. J. Lea
Journal publication date03/2003
JournalComparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular and Integrative Physiology
Number of pages0
Original languageEnglish


Radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. Redondo Vermelho) seedlings were analyzed by light and scanning electron microscopy to characterize the anatomical and morphological changes caused by the exposure to 0.5 or 1.0 mM CdCl2 for 24, 48 and 72 h. The analyses showed changes in the anatomical and morphological characteristics of roots, stems and leaves of two-week-old seedlings. In all tissues, loss of cell turgidity was observed. Premature death with disintegration of the epidermis and an increase in number of root hairs were observed in roots exposed to the heavy metal. The stems of seedlings exposed to cadmium exhibited an increased number of cells in the cambial layer. The main effects observed in leaves were stomatal closure, increase in chloroplast size and number, followed by a decrease in number of chloroplasts in response to the metal toxicity. This study suggests that the anatomical and morphological changes observed in seedlings treated with CdCl2 were mainly caused by a decrease in water absorption due to the presence of this heavy metal. (Financial support by FAPESP, Brazil, and the British Council).