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Surface temperature measurements of active lava flows on Kilauea volcano, Hawai'i.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published

Journal publication date15/03/2002
JournalJournal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Journal number1-2
Volume113
Number of pages18
Pages159-176
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

Systematic hand-held radiometer measurements of lava surface temperatures in active flows and tubes on Kilauea volcano, Hawai′i reveal complexities that cannot be resolved in remotely sensed data from aircraft or satellites. Using portable infrared Minolta/Land Cyclops radiometers, we measured surface temperatures of flows at various distances from their sources and investigated cooling rates and the development of crust. Our measurements suggest that the upper surface of these lava flows can be split into a minimum of four thermal components: core (>1050°C), visco-elastic skin (750–900°C), rigid solid crust (<750°C), and flow margins (<175°C). For the ′a′a flows investigated, a cool rigid crust characteristically developed in the central part of channels within 30 m of the source vent and incandescent lava was exposed in the marginal shear zones of channels. This affects the heat loss and morphology of lava in active channels. Our investigations of temperature distributions on pahoehoe flow fields reveal temperature anomalies of up to 150°C above active tubes and tumuli.

Bibliographic note

The final, definitive version of this article has been published in the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 113 (1-2), 2002, © ELSEVIER.