12,000

We have over 12,000 students, from over 100 countries, within one of the safest campuses in the UK

93%

93% of Lancaster students go into work or further study within six months of graduating

Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > The form and bioavailability of non-ionic organ...
View graph of relations

« Back

The form and bioavailability of non-ionic organic chemicals in sewage sludge-amended agricultural soils.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published

Journal publication date21/06/1996
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Journal number1-3
Volume185
Number of pages25
Pages125-149
Original languageEnglish

Abstract

The application of sewage sludges to agricultural land may increase the concentrations of many toxic organic chemicals in soils which could have adverse effects on wildlife and human health if these compounds enter foodchains. Chlorobenzenes (CBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) are amongst those compounds currently receiving most attention. The ‘form’ in which these, and other organic chemicals, are present in soils and their potential to be lost by various processes including leaching, volatilisation and (bio)degradation is shown to be dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the soil and sewage sludge, environmental conditions and the properties of the chemicals themselves. The distinction is made between those compounds that are labile, reversibly sorbed and irreversibly sorbed by sewage sludge-amended soils. The implications of the form in which the chemicals are present in soil for their ‘availability’ to transfer from the soil to bacteria, fungi, earthworms, grazing livestock and food crops followed by the potential for further transfers, metabolism or bioaccumulation are discussed. The importance of the timing and method of sewage sludge application to soil on ‘form’ and ‘availability’ are also considered.