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The GreenScreen genotoxicity assay : a screening validation programme.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article


  • P. A. Cahill
  • A. W. Knight
  • N. Billinton
  • M. G. Barker
  • L. Walsh
  • P. O. Keenan
  • C. V. Williams
  • D. J. Tweats
  • R. M. Walmsley
<mark>Journal publication date</mark>03/2004
Issue number2
Number of pages15
Pages (from-to)105-119
<mark>Original language</mark>English


A yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) DNA repair reporter assay termed the GreenScreen® assay (GSA) is described. This is a novel, cost-effective genotoxicity screen, developed to provide a pre-regulatory screening assay for use by the pharmaceutical industry and in other applications where significant numbers of compounds need to be tested. It provides a higher throughput and a lower compound consumption than existing eukaryotic genotoxicity assays and is sensitive to a broad spectrum of mutagens and, importantly, clastogens. We describe a simple, robust assay protocol and a validation study. The end-point of the test reflects the typically eukaryotic chromosomes and DNA metabolizing enzymes of yeast. The capacity for metabolic activation (MA) in yeast is limited compared with the mammalian liver or its extracts, but the assay does detect a subset of compounds that would require MA in existing genotoxicity tests. The GSA detects a different spectrum of compounds to bacterial genotoxicity assays and thus, together with an in silico structure–activity relationship (SAR) screen, and possibly a high throughput bacterial screen, would provide an effective preview of the regulatory battery of genotoxicity tests.