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The initiation and evolution of the River Nile

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The initiation and evolution of the River Nile. / Fielding, Laura; Najman, Yanina Manya Rachel; Millar, Ian; Butterworth, Peter; Garzanti, Eduardo; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Barfod, Dan; Kneller, Ben.

In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 489, 01.05.2018, p. 166-178.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Harvard

Fielding, L, Najman, YMR, Millar, I, Butterworth, P, Garzanti, E, Vezzoli, G, Barfod, D & Kneller, B 2018, 'The initiation and evolution of the River Nile', Earth and Planetary Science Letters, vol. 489, pp. 166-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2018.02.031

APA

Fielding, L., Najman, Y. M. R., Millar, I., Butterworth, P., Garzanti, E., Vezzoli, G., Barfod, D., & Kneller, B. (2018). The initiation and evolution of the River Nile. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 489, 166-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2018.02.031

Vancouver

Fielding L, Najman YMR, Millar I, Butterworth P, Garzanti E, Vezzoli G et al. The initiation and evolution of the River Nile. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2018 May 1;489:166-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2018.02.031

Author

Fielding, Laura ; Najman, Yanina Manya Rachel ; Millar, Ian ; Butterworth, Peter ; Garzanti, Eduardo ; Vezzoli, Giovanni ; Barfod, Dan ; Kneller, Ben. / The initiation and evolution of the River Nile. In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2018 ; Vol. 489. pp. 166-178.

Bibtex

@article{8fbd05d9a38742b2861df16618c1b4f0,
title = "The initiation and evolution of the River Nile",
abstract = "The Nile is generally regarded as the longest river in the world. Knowledge of the timing of the Nile's initiation as a major river is important to a number of research questions. For example, the timing of the river's establishment as a catchment of continental proportions can be used to document surface uplift of its Ethiopian upland drainage, with implications for constraining rift tectonics. Furthermore, the time of major freshwater input to the Mediterranean is considered to be an important factor in the development of sapropels. Yet the river's initiation as a major drainage is currently constrained no more precisely than Eocene to Pleistocene. Within the modern Nile catchment, voluminous Cenozoic Continental Flood Basalts (CFBs) are unique to the Ethiopian Highlands; thus first detection of their presence in the Nile delta record indicates establishment of the river's drainage at continental proportions at that time. We present the first detailed multiproxy provenance study of Oligocene-Recent Nile delta cone sediments. We demonstrate the presence of Ethiopian CFB detritus in the Nile delta from the start of our studied record (c. 31 Ma) by (1) documenting the presence of zircons with U-Pb ages unique, within the Nile catchment, to the Ethiopian CFBs and (2) using Sr-Nd data to construct a mixing model which indicates a contribution from the CFBs. We thereby show that the Nile river was established as a river of continental proportions by Oligocene times. We use petrography and heavy mineral data to show that previous petrographic provenance studies which proposed a Pleistocene age for first arrival of Ethiopian CFBs in the Nile delta did not take into account the strong diagenetic influence on the samples. We use a range of techniques to show that sediments were derived from Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks that blanket North Africa, Arabian-Nubian Shield basement terranes, and Ethiopian CFB's. We see no significant input from Archaean cratons supplied directly via the White Nile in any of our samples. Whilst there are subtle differences between our Nile delta samples from the Oligocene and Pliocene compared to those from the Miocene and Pleistocene, the overall stability of our signal throughout the delta record, and its similarity to the modern Nile signature, indicates no major change in the Nile's drainage from Oligocene to present day. ",
keywords = "River Nile, Nile delta, detrital geochronology, isotopic provenance studies",
author = "Laura Fielding and Najman, {Yanina Manya Rachel} and Ian Millar and Peter Butterworth and Eduardo Garzanti and Giovanni Vezzoli and Dan Barfod and Ben Kneller",
year = "2018",
month = may
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.epsl.2018.02.031",
language = "English",
volume = "489",
pages = "166--178",
journal = "Earth and Planetary Science Letters",
issn = "0012-821X",
publisher = "Elsevier Science B.V.",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - The initiation and evolution of the River Nile

AU - Fielding, Laura

AU - Najman, Yanina Manya Rachel

AU - Millar, Ian

AU - Butterworth, Peter

AU - Garzanti, Eduardo

AU - Vezzoli, Giovanni

AU - Barfod, Dan

AU - Kneller, Ben

PY - 2018/5/1

Y1 - 2018/5/1

N2 - The Nile is generally regarded as the longest river in the world. Knowledge of the timing of the Nile's initiation as a major river is important to a number of research questions. For example, the timing of the river's establishment as a catchment of continental proportions can be used to document surface uplift of its Ethiopian upland drainage, with implications for constraining rift tectonics. Furthermore, the time of major freshwater input to the Mediterranean is considered to be an important factor in the development of sapropels. Yet the river's initiation as a major drainage is currently constrained no more precisely than Eocene to Pleistocene. Within the modern Nile catchment, voluminous Cenozoic Continental Flood Basalts (CFBs) are unique to the Ethiopian Highlands; thus first detection of their presence in the Nile delta record indicates establishment of the river's drainage at continental proportions at that time. We present the first detailed multiproxy provenance study of Oligocene-Recent Nile delta cone sediments. We demonstrate the presence of Ethiopian CFB detritus in the Nile delta from the start of our studied record (c. 31 Ma) by (1) documenting the presence of zircons with U-Pb ages unique, within the Nile catchment, to the Ethiopian CFBs and (2) using Sr-Nd data to construct a mixing model which indicates a contribution from the CFBs. We thereby show that the Nile river was established as a river of continental proportions by Oligocene times. We use petrography and heavy mineral data to show that previous petrographic provenance studies which proposed a Pleistocene age for first arrival of Ethiopian CFBs in the Nile delta did not take into account the strong diagenetic influence on the samples. We use a range of techniques to show that sediments were derived from Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks that blanket North Africa, Arabian-Nubian Shield basement terranes, and Ethiopian CFB's. We see no significant input from Archaean cratons supplied directly via the White Nile in any of our samples. Whilst there are subtle differences between our Nile delta samples from the Oligocene and Pliocene compared to those from the Miocene and Pleistocene, the overall stability of our signal throughout the delta record, and its similarity to the modern Nile signature, indicates no major change in the Nile's drainage from Oligocene to present day.

AB - The Nile is generally regarded as the longest river in the world. Knowledge of the timing of the Nile's initiation as a major river is important to a number of research questions. For example, the timing of the river's establishment as a catchment of continental proportions can be used to document surface uplift of its Ethiopian upland drainage, with implications for constraining rift tectonics. Furthermore, the time of major freshwater input to the Mediterranean is considered to be an important factor in the development of sapropels. Yet the river's initiation as a major drainage is currently constrained no more precisely than Eocene to Pleistocene. Within the modern Nile catchment, voluminous Cenozoic Continental Flood Basalts (CFBs) are unique to the Ethiopian Highlands; thus first detection of their presence in the Nile delta record indicates establishment of the river's drainage at continental proportions at that time. We present the first detailed multiproxy provenance study of Oligocene-Recent Nile delta cone sediments. We demonstrate the presence of Ethiopian CFB detritus in the Nile delta from the start of our studied record (c. 31 Ma) by (1) documenting the presence of zircons with U-Pb ages unique, within the Nile catchment, to the Ethiopian CFBs and (2) using Sr-Nd data to construct a mixing model which indicates a contribution from the CFBs. We thereby show that the Nile river was established as a river of continental proportions by Oligocene times. We use petrography and heavy mineral data to show that previous petrographic provenance studies which proposed a Pleistocene age for first arrival of Ethiopian CFBs in the Nile delta did not take into account the strong diagenetic influence on the samples. We use a range of techniques to show that sediments were derived from Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks that blanket North Africa, Arabian-Nubian Shield basement terranes, and Ethiopian CFB's. We see no significant input from Archaean cratons supplied directly via the White Nile in any of our samples. Whilst there are subtle differences between our Nile delta samples from the Oligocene and Pliocene compared to those from the Miocene and Pleistocene, the overall stability of our signal throughout the delta record, and its similarity to the modern Nile signature, indicates no major change in the Nile's drainage from Oligocene to present day.

KW - River Nile

KW - Nile delta

KW - detrital geochronology

KW - isotopic provenance studies

U2 - 10.1016/j.epsl.2018.02.031

DO - 10.1016/j.epsl.2018.02.031

M3 - Journal article

VL - 489

SP - 166

EP - 178

JO - Earth and Planetary Science Letters

JF - Earth and Planetary Science Letters

SN - 0012-821X

ER -