Home > Research > Publications & Outputs > The malaria testing and treatment landscape in ...

Links

Text available via DOI:

View graph of relations

The malaria testing and treatment landscape in Kenya: results from a nationally representative survey among the public and private sector in 2016

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Published

Standard

The malaria testing and treatment landscape in Kenya : results from a nationally representative survey among the public and private sector in 2016. / ACTwatch Group.

In: Malaria Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1, 494, 21.12.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal article

Harvard

APA

Vancouver

Author

Bibtex

@article{6222b56817a6471d8bbbdfd28d61b4dd,
title = "The malaria testing and treatment landscape in Kenya: results from a nationally representative survey among the public and private sector in 2016",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: Since 2004, Kenya's national malaria treatment guidelines have stipulated artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, and since 2014, confirmatory diagnosis of malaria in all cases before treatment has been recommended. A number of strategies to support national guidelines have been implemented in the public and private sectors in recent years. A nationally-representative malaria outlet survey, implemented across four epidemiological zones, was conducted between June and August 2016 to provide practical evidence to inform strategies and policies in Kenya towards achieving national malaria control goals.RESULTS: A total of 17,852 outlets were screened and 2271 outlets were eligible and interviewed. 78.3% of all screened public health facilities stocked both malaria diagnostic testing and quality-assured ACT (QAACT). Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy was available in 70% of public health facilities in endemic areas where it is recommended for treatment. SP was rarely found in the public sector outside of the endemic areas (< 0.5%). The anti-malaria stocking private sector had lower levels of QAACT (46.7%) and malaria blood testing (20.8%) availability but accounted for majority of anti-malarial distribution (70.6% of the national market share). More than 40% of anti-malarials were distributed by unregistered pharmacies (37.3%) and general retailers (7.1%). QAACT accounted for 58.2% of the total anti-malarial market share, while market share for non-QAACT was 15.8% and for SP, 24.8%. In endemic areas, 74.9% of anti-malarials distributed were QAACT. Elsewhere, QAACT market share was 49.4% in the endemic-prone areas, 33.2% in seasonal-transmission areas and 37.9% in low-risk areas.CONCLUSION: Although public sector availability of QAACT and malaria diagnosis is relatively high, there is a gap in availability of both testing and treatment that must be addressed. The private sector in Kenya, where the majority of anti-malarials are distributed, is also critical for achieving universal coverage with appropriate malaria case management. There is need for a renewed commitment and effective strategies to ensure access to affordable QAACT and confirmatory testing in the private sector, and should consider how to address malaria case management among informal providers responsible for a substantial proportion of the anti-malarial market share.",
keywords = "Antimalarials/administration & dosage, Artemisinins/administration & dosage, Case Management, Commerce, Disease Management, Humans, Kenya/epidemiology, Malaria/diagnosis, Pharmacies, Population Surveillance, Private Sector/statistics & numerical data, Public Sector/statistics & numerical data, Surveys and Questionnaires, Universal Health Insurance",
author = "{ACTwatch Group} and Anne Musuva and Waqo Ejersa and Rebecca Kiptui and Dorothy Memusi and Edward Abwao and Irene Kyomuhangi",
year = "2017",
month = dec
day = "21",
doi = "10.1186/s12936-017-2089-0",
language = "English",
volume = "16",
journal = "Malaria Journal",
issn = "1475-2875",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
number = "1",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - The malaria testing and treatment landscape in Kenya

T2 - results from a nationally representative survey among the public and private sector in 2016

AU - ACTwatch Group

AU - Musuva, Anne

AU - Ejersa, Waqo

AU - Kiptui, Rebecca

AU - Memusi, Dorothy

AU - Abwao, Edward

AU - Kyomuhangi, Irene

PY - 2017/12/21

Y1 - 2017/12/21

N2 - BACKGROUND: Since 2004, Kenya's national malaria treatment guidelines have stipulated artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, and since 2014, confirmatory diagnosis of malaria in all cases before treatment has been recommended. A number of strategies to support national guidelines have been implemented in the public and private sectors in recent years. A nationally-representative malaria outlet survey, implemented across four epidemiological zones, was conducted between June and August 2016 to provide practical evidence to inform strategies and policies in Kenya towards achieving national malaria control goals.RESULTS: A total of 17,852 outlets were screened and 2271 outlets were eligible and interviewed. 78.3% of all screened public health facilities stocked both malaria diagnostic testing and quality-assured ACT (QAACT). Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy was available in 70% of public health facilities in endemic areas where it is recommended for treatment. SP was rarely found in the public sector outside of the endemic areas (< 0.5%). The anti-malaria stocking private sector had lower levels of QAACT (46.7%) and malaria blood testing (20.8%) availability but accounted for majority of anti-malarial distribution (70.6% of the national market share). More than 40% of anti-malarials were distributed by unregistered pharmacies (37.3%) and general retailers (7.1%). QAACT accounted for 58.2% of the total anti-malarial market share, while market share for non-QAACT was 15.8% and for SP, 24.8%. In endemic areas, 74.9% of anti-malarials distributed were QAACT. Elsewhere, QAACT market share was 49.4% in the endemic-prone areas, 33.2% in seasonal-transmission areas and 37.9% in low-risk areas.CONCLUSION: Although public sector availability of QAACT and malaria diagnosis is relatively high, there is a gap in availability of both testing and treatment that must be addressed. The private sector in Kenya, where the majority of anti-malarials are distributed, is also critical for achieving universal coverage with appropriate malaria case management. There is need for a renewed commitment and effective strategies to ensure access to affordable QAACT and confirmatory testing in the private sector, and should consider how to address malaria case management among informal providers responsible for a substantial proportion of the anti-malarial market share.

AB - BACKGROUND: Since 2004, Kenya's national malaria treatment guidelines have stipulated artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, and since 2014, confirmatory diagnosis of malaria in all cases before treatment has been recommended. A number of strategies to support national guidelines have been implemented in the public and private sectors in recent years. A nationally-representative malaria outlet survey, implemented across four epidemiological zones, was conducted between June and August 2016 to provide practical evidence to inform strategies and policies in Kenya towards achieving national malaria control goals.RESULTS: A total of 17,852 outlets were screened and 2271 outlets were eligible and interviewed. 78.3% of all screened public health facilities stocked both malaria diagnostic testing and quality-assured ACT (QAACT). Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy was available in 70% of public health facilities in endemic areas where it is recommended for treatment. SP was rarely found in the public sector outside of the endemic areas (< 0.5%). The anti-malaria stocking private sector had lower levels of QAACT (46.7%) and malaria blood testing (20.8%) availability but accounted for majority of anti-malarial distribution (70.6% of the national market share). More than 40% of anti-malarials were distributed by unregistered pharmacies (37.3%) and general retailers (7.1%). QAACT accounted for 58.2% of the total anti-malarial market share, while market share for non-QAACT was 15.8% and for SP, 24.8%. In endemic areas, 74.9% of anti-malarials distributed were QAACT. Elsewhere, QAACT market share was 49.4% in the endemic-prone areas, 33.2% in seasonal-transmission areas and 37.9% in low-risk areas.CONCLUSION: Although public sector availability of QAACT and malaria diagnosis is relatively high, there is a gap in availability of both testing and treatment that must be addressed. The private sector in Kenya, where the majority of anti-malarials are distributed, is also critical for achieving universal coverage with appropriate malaria case management. There is need for a renewed commitment and effective strategies to ensure access to affordable QAACT and confirmatory testing in the private sector, and should consider how to address malaria case management among informal providers responsible for a substantial proportion of the anti-malarial market share.

KW - Antimalarials/administration & dosage

KW - Artemisinins/administration & dosage

KW - Case Management

KW - Commerce

KW - Disease Management

KW - Humans

KW - Kenya/epidemiology

KW - Malaria/diagnosis

KW - Pharmacies

KW - Population Surveillance

KW - Private Sector/statistics & numerical data

KW - Public Sector/statistics & numerical data

KW - Surveys and Questionnaires

KW - Universal Health Insurance

U2 - 10.1186/s12936-017-2089-0

DO - 10.1186/s12936-017-2089-0

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 29268789

VL - 16

JO - Malaria Journal

JF - Malaria Journal

SN - 1475-2875

IS - 1

M1 - 494

ER -